|Wednesday, 30-May-2012 03:03
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The trilogy - [the residual day middle 4]
. fourth back to back Ii Dao Lianzi mm Li Yu combing chaos ,makeup residue with hate eyebrows or saved .Oblique supporting far incense bamboo shoots with tender ,for whom and with tears in ?Huaruifuren laughs: " ;ten years no see, you wind girl except slightly themselves outside ,other all not to grow ?" ;North Palace which also laughed :" ;dare to beauty than ?" ;pull her hand ,her face gaunt look back, microstrip color, Marvel :" ;you into Shu palace ,I don you.
Now song into palace ,white Yuncang dog ,the world is changeable, no wonder you are not accustomed to." ;" ;pistil lady sighed :where is better than your L r out of the palace maids ,not only has its own villa ,but also in the political arena battles, is dead ,he also loved hated with vigour and vitality ,.
" ;sail :Palace of the North " ;this may be surprising .In Shu Hui Fei palace you are ,here still is Hui Fei .To live an extravagant life you don ,but at least the wind calm Jingan Lele ,would like our reign of terror ,be threatened by growing crises .
You didn ?" ;pistil lady looked down in silence .Then, it suddenly asked :" ;you are a girl dress up ,yet and Zhuang Shaoxia Married childhood sweetheart ?You but playmates ,his personality is very easy-going hh" ;" ;it is strange .
" ;North Palace of :" ;Zhongzhou ,East ,West ,north ,Southern Star ,with the trial ,and containing a light ,intercepting ,night training ,brother Zi Qin ,which one is not with me my childhood sweetheart ,where it has many people marry ?" ;" ;huaruifuren Road :a big mouth !How do you grow up ?I mean and you engagement unmarried husband ,nature is different from the others .
You not is friends with Zhuang Shaoxia ?" ;North Gong Qianfan sighs ,disgruntled tunnel: " ;two not pleasant ,engagement what? Oh, right, you in the compilation of ancient Hui spectrum I copied a copy to send a person, you don ?L R and l yr old crazy year tear r well .
" ;huaruifuren nodded: & quot ;a fellow people ,is the friend of God ,I wrote things can be handed down well. The time has come, I went to burn incense !" ;pulled him into the chamber ,to a Taoist portrait into a stick of incense ,and with a northern palace sails looked up ,amazed :Hey ," ;this is not a Meng ,Meng said :" hh" ;huaruifuren ;good, is I Shu dream can A fairy ,you know that ?" ;North Palace of knowing, busy nodded: " ;son Zhang Xian so effective, natural have heard of.
" ;thought :" ;including core sister is really sentimentalist ,Shu Meng Chang this bale monarch ,even as he made prayer to HH alas ,this person if summer big brother HH ,if she know summer big brother mind, not the more disturbing ?Anyway, big brother has a summer home in her song ,this house is not too bad ,tell her, but increase the sentimental .
" ;heart is fixed, can not say more ,and asked: " ;legend has it a singular flowers blossom ,one hundred years ,two hundred years ,Jeremy Scott Adidas son's birthday. Want to evade,three hundred years as your ancient Hui spectrum is recorded ,the Hui has lost its name is the world really has the strange object ?" ;huaruifuren take it out of the room, sat down again, I laughed :" ;only in some ancient books that record is seen ,by down.
It is said that it very spiritual ,100th years,shall have the ink paper burned out for the soil ,every seven days with ink watering time ,only can the one hundred years blossom .The flower bowl mouth size ,but black heart-shaped petals ,the valve edge white ooze ,flower is white ,looks elegant ,clean beauty can not be side - .
" ;northern Palace Sail to :" ;who inspired the names tiring ,gardening people not to die ?" ;" ;mind andao :this strange things you might meet ,poor summer big brother to you rove all over the world to find it .
You even do not enter the palace, the summer big brother this life may not find it flowers but it is really interesting." ;pistil lady laughed :" ;this is not now .Wait 200th years ,still with a burned out of ink for the soil ,every seven days the spirits to generation of water to irrigate, only insurable this 200th years tobear fruit .
The full two hundred years ,grow to become a large fruit ,is a heart-shaped ,white crystal, like jade ,beautiful ." ;North Palace of staggering :" ;not a romance ,or how long this strange thing mm ink concentration and poured their flower clean elegant wine ,strong guard its real crystal clear.
Is beautiful, but the person irritated dead ." ;huaruifuren continued :" ;to 300th years ,the flowers have a real ,you needn to ink strong drink his water, only up to pass the most cold land ,let it suffered one hundred years of wind rain and snow bullying .
In this one hundred years ,the fruit will gradually wither into dark ,litchi size ,and then Sometimes, the fruit color ashes ,its spicy and astringent difficult pharyngeal mm which finished three hundred years of innocence .
" ;North Palace sail sighed :" ;then the good fruit ,to one hundred years of snow sin into his appearance, ugly, horrible ,how to calculate the Xiucheng Zhengguo be accomplished ?& quot ;stamen lady laughed :" ;silly girl ,you give yourself a copy of ,don read it ,say these stay ?Ancient load: three hundred years into a real ,clothing ,beauty Yang Rong ,any woman can change into hair ,maiden ,not only renew one ,always nurture youth .
,was tied to a legend ,the first to see it into a real lover ,can be blessed forever ,forever ." ;North Palace of nods: " ;this segment is please Beidou help copy ,not read.
And the original five illustrations in my copy also simply province .Three hundred for years ,people have the bone dust ,but also it possibly do? Ink concentration to cast its last years, wine with strong lack the acacia ,and miserable conditions a masochistic Xiucheng Zhengguo ,,was the virtue ,the taste of love is the ending is so ?This is the fruit of love the fruit ,or resentment ?" huaruifuren stay ;, laughed :" ;you should say truth ,is it right? Have a sweetheart ?" ;North Palace of red in the face, her head: " ;I just sigh and all the men and women ,all the time relatively when does not understand the love, is to find what on earth three hundred years before this monster ,show emotion .
But the book did not rush into the ink has been concentrated ,intractable ,would bring myself to melt. ." ;huaruifuren teased her :" ;you are not men and women ,is still flying fairy ?Ha ,if not with the person on the heart ,where it would be feeling so deep ?Who this person is ,I do know ?In the palace of the North Main ,left all know? " ;North Palace of bow fell for a long time,Air Foamposite 1, just slowly :" ;you know! " ;pistil lady asked in surprise :" ;why should I know ?What a bad man is you like ?" ;see she remained silent ,huaruifuren knew that slip of the tongue ,busy and comfort: " ;in fact you are bad enough .
With your personality, if in feeling Qiu AI regret ,trouble is more. What the hell is going on ?" ;North Palace sails looked up and asked :" ;you can love anyone, for he and troubles ?" ;" ;pistil lady sighed :I have this blessing from where ?Small to read and write ,flowers and grass, also didn know what love is ,then into the palace .
The subjugation by the Song Dynasty ,Shu palace palace ,returned to the woman of subjugation to the song, is Meng HH just grace only, now sung Wong toi although I favor ,but not me HH what you like a man ?" ;North Palace of :" ;don Li Yu ,who have you ever heard ?" ;" ;Penglai hospital closed roof female ,painting hall daytime sleep people speechless .
" ;huaruifuren nodded: " ;his unparalleled talent ,Confucianism elegant wind flow wrong ,but life in the imperial family .How ,will he had associated with ?" ;north of the palace at present how to recognize Li Yu ,week queen e ,and how to please two people of connubial to " ;women villa " ;the feast of weeks ,and queen e disease death ,a few years experience brief said again ,just know Li Yuqian ,along with Xia Zheshan and Simon Yat passenger travel and three months thereafter ,West Lake off a hidden things ,not to say .
Huaruifuren listen more odd ,stay for a moment before: " ;the twists and turns ,it is exceeding all expectations .Your personality ,to favor a frail scholar is the wonders ,but this has is a country the main ,no wonder you depressed.
" ;thousands of northern Palace Sail a pout ,once again bow :" ;if it was that easy .He only algae airflow ,elegant gentle is needless to say ,he unexpectedly meets rare barehanded ,I will not hide from my unruly ,play the gangster he did not fear ,even I think you really love .
He ." ;" ;" ;think ?Huaruifuren is all the more surprising ,path: " ;don really like him? " ;North Palace of slightly nodded, a hidden tunnel: " ;I was wild used, even parents are not a bundle ,aunt my pet is needless to say ,he is born with a pair of fearless personality.
I am so naughty, poetic inscription brother is my pet,Adidas Jeremy Scott Teddy Bear ", my heart was also afraid of me ,have the opportunity to avoid me. I and everyone used to address each other as brothers ,rarely thought about what differences between men and women ,nike hyperdunks 2011,men and women pleased ,so poetic inscription brother like sister .
." ;" ;pistil lady laughed :you were never cry ,because I also means read .When you said ,some day in the future will scare Zhuang little break off an engagement ,the original is known for his favorite CD cloud sister.
" ;North Palace of continued :& quot ;because I am more than like me, so to him I never hope, only Him as a good brother. Is a poetic inscription brother courtly and gentle Li Yu ,barehanded but I not evade ,also be spinless ,naturally I be full of joy .
Later I went to the Mount Huangshan l support righteous help r trouble, want to his mouth ,at that time is not met Li Yu Ci Li is not .One day ,I went to l coagulation Hui Lu r static room wall ,but suddenly greatly discerning and apprehending .
" ;huaruifuren enraptured ,also do not answer ,just nodded ,listening to her again: " ;when I want to :the first half of the year, and named the speculation ,because a and like his brother modest and amiable poem inscription ,refined gentle man ,but unlike his headache I ,I went to l support for R trouble for righteousness ,Lee outlet ,as well as the original ,but is the friend of this .
." ;" ;that is to say ,you love or Zhuang Shaoxia ?" ;" ;if not early on she intends to see him ,and then the headache I ,I would even like he didn ?Can only blame me on weekdays, effeminate man or manly woman ,and he also address each other as brothers ,but even his mind what also do not understand the .
" ;" ;then why would you persuaded him to go on into the cloud HH you don sad ?" ;" ;he loves She is I already know, I found myself like he is what happened after that ,really is inserted in the among them person is I ,where I is eligible to sad? Had to smile to sigh the life is .
" ;huaruifuren hold his hands ,softly :" ;you don a little sad ?" ;" ;a little regret it. On the wall ,he figured, poem ,or from the Ming Jia worth mentioning, I always sad worried ,they are so good personality to tolerate my bad, not too unfair? I don the people simple .
Think it thought like people I don like him, in fact I like people who fear for others to know ,hidden less. Life failure ,this ." ;" ;your heart ,little wonder? " ;North Palace of frowns: " ;I just like him, or in the past ,can let him know.
He loves sister so long, she was not a heart ,if there is fate ,should be the mutual married to mix ,I what ?" ;pistil lady laugh :" ;formerly ?Don ,sweetheart ?Congratulations !Who the person is ?" ;" ;I now even the poetry of Ming brother Don to think.
Alas ,sentient beings ,I am not to cause infinite harm to peole ,who did not eat the night difficult sleep .The best is a lifetime have no contact with anyone ,trial ,the whole people ,seeing that the bad disguise to escape, how happy !I tired ,find a few good friends ,chat permitted sing while drinking ,awfully ?As a person love alone ,be very worried about ,deeply sorrowed ?Ha ,might as well kill me !" ;huaruifuren could not help but laugh :" ;this Yufei Peter Lee Li Yu ,you said the L coagulation Hui Lu R Li Yu is the princess sent, how do you play tricks on others ?" ;" ;the Lee case ,was killed ,and he carries a big a blood feud .
The villa is not convenient ,let him give respite heart sister for legs ,then slowly taught him martial arts ." ;" ;is ,Li Chengbo was not very good, but in the heart but not his son ,is revenge attack ,do not you have for him to help R .
L supporting righteousness ?" ;" ;now he is in the hills to heal ,is a frail scholar to practise superior martial arts ,lest he be congenitally deficient .If greedy hypomanic ,nike zoom kobe 6,magic ,magic and invasive in heart, more life in danger now.
In a quiet place ,in order to raise The ." ;pistil lady saw her as if thinking of sth. ,don break ,as she thought. The North Palace Xiasi near sail suddenly said: " ;the song after listening to you ,and you said you prevented ,Prince Princess get along pretty well ,especially Noriaki ,you are cherishing love ,as if to others, can be the matter ?" ;huaruifuren nodded: " ;rare them not to I am conquered woman too ,we will naturally and many.
" ;" ;you will have to be very careful ,everything self-protection ." huaruifuren Road :" ;Prince Princess and I are thick ,but from the heart, and there will be its not ?" ;sail around a palace of the north ,see Deng eunuchs are standing outside the hall ,just down the sound :" ;I was afraid of you and grand son intersect too close, will make people hate .
" ;huaruifuren staring eyes, listening to her again: " ;song Huangzun Du Dowager Ci life ,Kaifeng Yin Zhao Guangyi reservoir ,how things develop is not known. The ancient palace contingency strife emerge in an endless stream ,you & Prince Princess kiss thick ,is out of loving hearts ,if encounter narrow-minded people have doubts ,you want to enter the North Song Huanggai made crown prince hh" ;huaruifuren listen more fear ,palms sweat ,not help shaking Head ,did not say anything .
Just listen to the palace of the North sails continued: " ;Zhao Guangyi special status ,side with his power are the father ,you are now the most favorite concubine of the emperor ,who put in a good word for self is lift a finger .
If provoked his jealousy ,together with him on the right potential the villain out trick ,you worrying situation ." ;huaruifuren fibrillation channel :" ;but is elder hurts some junior, too ?I in Shu is HH Kaifeng Yin Zhao Guangyi is generous ministers, and Yao do not hate on me a little lady ?" ;North Palace of sighs: " ;but I was selfish postulate that ,for your safety shoes.
I wish I was really the heart of small ." ;huaruifuren forced smile ,my heart still have a lingering fear tunnel: " ;although it is fallacy ,seldom ask world events would you as I think of this layer ,thank you your .
" ;" ;high shockproof main ,the sentiment false beauty ,ancient science it. Pink wine release ,military power, although it is hypocritical for his language ,than him ,Liu Bangsha Han Xin ,has a lot, what is the emperor After monarch to attack this life style ,can also little tired many hero HH alas ,again, not Say this !Zhuzhao Hui Tang rebuild after colorful plumage .
I ask God in song ,found in you ,for the copy for you. Yan matter although passes ,but this song was handed down through the ages ,aromatic soul long ,difficult to destroy !" ;huaruifuren rejoicing, will I was suddenly lost all behind, took the book notes ,watching with the strings .
North Palace sails in the one side with Parrots Play .Also I do not know how long after ,it grew dark ,hall and the eunuch to intrinsic :Danfeng princess !Duan Sudan bounce to run out, dragging the North Palace of laughs: " ;master, came late diet ,I come here to meet you in person and pistil pistil lady Niangniang .
" ;she will also push :" ;your good apprentice to ,don bully me blue ." ;the North Palace of an idle mind smile ,be full of worries ,with two people present .Three go out to see Zhao Kuang Yin Zhao Kuangyin met them ,laughed :" ;Rui Fei ,you know this girl when, how old is she ?" ;huaruifuren should be: " ;she was just ten years old ,- good ,to his concubine ,he managed to take off from the eaves of a few l years of age crazy Zhao Kuangyin :r.
" ;" ;I meet her in Gaoping ,she was just a stealing rations of the woman ,only At age eight or nine ,ha ha ha !" ;think of ten years ago Moses bowel North Palace of Han Army military disclosed past ,happy occasion, can his shall laugh.
North Palace of stare :" ;well, thanks to my woman !If not I HH I where is what woman ?" ;Duan Sudan hear the past ,can not help blurting out :" ;thus, father and master them instead to Rui Niangniang .
Young master ,out of cash .Why don teach me ?" : " ;Zhao Kuangyin smile ;you have defy laws human and divine ,to learn what out of cash ,not more is be a tiger with wings added ?You the young master of Kung Fu is not limited to this ,she was only a thin bamboo sticks, then cleared the handcuffs horse copper lock ,even I ride to L through R to.
" shouts of joy ;Duan Sudan : " ;the lock ?I want to learn !Can you let me have a look you bet l five plum dagger R ,that is a weapon! " ;North Palace of sweet :" ;I will put the glint and flash of cold steel and bring it into the palace ?" :" ;Duan Sudan be in the best of spirits tunnel ;you need to teach me good light ,well ,its aphrodisiac method I want to learn .
" palace of the North sails ;smile not language, sipping a drink. Zhao Kuangyin suddenly asked :" ;girl ,and rumours ,don Li Yu did not make the prince before its weeks and you have a friendship .
You see Li Yu this gentleman ?" ;North Palace of mind with a cold, thinks: " ;" ;called come !Should be: " ;the princess was also have seen down main and Akimegumi ,a married couple very much in love ,full of wit ,is indeed beyond the generation.
" ;Zhao Kuangyin picks up must smile: " ;the world is praised for his elegant in manner, attitude and speech ,my eyes ,he is less rich weather ,his poetry just like poor literati of the poetry ,not like people hand.
This only if in my in the Song Dynasty ,but a member of the Imperial Academy ear !" ;north of the palace when his teasing Li Yu do " ;bachelor Academy " ;scene, not only hold the glass ,slightly after a ,before: " ;its Ou Chengxian industry ,according to Jiangnan ,since not enter new areas build up establishment of emperor comparable .
But I the woman ,their parents out of Hu ,Central Plains things neither insights ,irrelevant cut heart ,but the plan is easy clean .." ;say ,just smile .Duan Sudan ,bud ,a deep house, having nothing hidden in the mind ,not two overtones in conversation ,was also only with Josh ,don .
North Palace which is heart suddenly ,andao: " ;is ,like the hero characters ,the lakes and rivers with isavailable door-to-door to many natural . He has gained in the net for their own use mind ,of course the other clans to him toward all afraid .
Huh ,fight for territory in ancient Central China is their matter ,and anyway we l women villa won join R ,l Shaolin Temple R ,l coagulation Hui door R is the red man ,nature will not pay any attention.
Kuang aunt has no ambitions ,I r l palace in Changbai Mountain ,not to worry about it .However ,the battle still less to play a good point ,the world less dead some soldiers ,civilian common people home will be less affected by some of the pain of separation .
" ;Zhao Kuangyin saw her look so magnanimous ,no longer say. North Palace of stay in the harem ,already worried Duan Sudan return to Dali, she is also with the words out of the palace ,and two daughters together out of Bianjing ,south of Duan Sudan to return to Dali ,she went to Luoyang .
This policy Maxi and the wind is warm ,summer season .The rats of both ,she easily into a traveling scholar, but also a way to peace walk ,listen to some lakes anecdotes, along River and on to Huashan " ," ;too ;see the " ;whirlwind son & quot ;Chen Tuan .
Soaring sub Chen Tuan ,the true source of the inner man. Changxin years held in Wales is not the first, but for the road, live on the Huashan " " ;too ;the Yuquan Institute ,.
" ;mm" ;sunspot fly out ,halfway killed ,a middle-aged monk stroked his beard smiled: " ;oh oh, stealing Dan koji visited ,but this was afraid to return empty-handed ." ;a grain of white ,the subsequent road resistance ,smile end tea calices sipping ,is soaring son Chen Tuan .
North Palace of jumping off the roof ,also laughed :" ;Chen bovine nose ,you bet on the game from the king had won a mountain ,I tell you bet count? " ;his hands ," ;" ;a sound ,and halfway hijacking a grain of sunspot and Chen Tuan playing chess road Tong hesitate to see the master ,don to let her to play chess.
" ;good, it is you that l win. Blur box r you but a year opens. From the three years period is two years .How do you open ?" ;North Palace of disdain tunnel: " ;this L blur box R lock has bad years ,lock already shedding ,usual methods of course make it open.
The girl to the keyhole pour into some mercury ,mercury heavy float lock marbles ,to bend a silver signed into the keyhole ,to force a ,not easy and open ?For box The tablets engraved for Dan secret little wood ,I have !" ;Chen Tuan :" ;the more bizarre ,I and Mr.
Gu studied two years also did not think of to inject mercury ,you unlock more ingenious than skill ,in ." ;North Palace of pride :" ;you are in praise I will lock ,or in the satirical arts I thief NISSEI ?" ;" ;the handle silver whisk is lost to you ,eat !" ;white into the office ,immediately had her three sunspots .
Chen Tuan look up :" ;Xuan Hua ,Jeremy Scott Adidas,received the pieces for wind koji into city Xuan Qing ,take my silver whisk, installed in the !" ;Dao Tong retired ,Kitamiya Chiho bluntly, unrestrained and frank; straightforward a sunspot ,began to put ,but a tea time ,was eating two .
Chen Tuan :" ;l Xba five sword R ,seemingly lazy ,but actually stubborn ,is you to lay the world universal ,are natural .So let it be ,but if you can do a job with skill and ease .
Buddhist calendar all corners of the country risk :universal ,is beautiful to color, than traditional heart strongman from practice ,Adidas Jeremy Scott Bones,when more insight . So koji doings ,I will never be with or flattering ,today is tomorrow biased dilute ,Nong Li today is tomorrow Above .
" ;North Palace of blunt tunnel: " ;road to road ,very road; who can name ,very .Therefore the ox Chen Tuan ,Chen Tuan very cattle ,cover very key Taoist ear !" ;his pole ,laugh .
Chen Tuan " ;" ;a sound ,Recent life a mess,and even eat her three child ,the head also does not carry ,light asked :" ;if it is a little Fort Hill main and East Zhuge ,hear clearly ?" ;" ;also do not think ,the thief eavesdropping would have heard from l ?The eight immortals dagger R ,in recent years into an eventful year ;the main syndrome in warfare ,balefire ceaseless ,but not the Pacific world.
Besides rumors recently too ,some lakes and can only secretly tracing ." ;" ;if you want to set to persist in wilfully and arbitrarily ?" ;Chen Tuan and stroked his beard ,listen to her voice chuckled: " ;I had dreaded the thing mm call for !" ;Chen Tuan received two albino ,nodded: " ;quack dangerous not to lose the officialdom ,love you.
Some self-proclaimed hero ,and good character ,its hypocrisy is not aware of ,especially be careful with these people. As the main ,and in the wilderness ,to discuss the ." ;northern palace sail shook his head :" ;the idea is out of my success ,shall be on my shoulders ,it is not easy? Some people asked me to your nose to come ,say I am because steal your pills ,and you have .
You practice makes people ,they are rarely people would ask you about me ." ;Chen Tuan then began a grain of albino ,stopped in mid-air ,a hand stroked his beard ,thoughtfully .The North Palace of laughs: " ;why do you hesitate .
It !" ;Chen Tuan light :" ;koji wind high waves evil still sit bow ,is good, I also want to own much of the ." ;a son ,said: " ;l sin dagger r Gang ,except for R and l Yingjie ,another batch of unknown origin .
However the Lingyin ,Fengxian ,cool three Temple ,and the night into the Fort Hill home ,what should be taken during a notes ,this book chronicles the life and make friends .Some anecdotes, as for other ,I temporarily can make nothing of it when .
" ;North Palace of :" ;and it is as expected ,it is his handwriting and benefits masters .Thank you! I will visit Dan real steal a little pills ,and her Danlu .You key can remember not to put too good pills in Dan room ,otherwise would be a big loss to .
" ;Chen Tuan smiled said: " ;Koji A few more practical ?I Xuan Hua ,Xuan Qing Yu Dan real waiting ,you acupuncture can not under the heavy hand ,they had not practiced skills .
" ;North Palace which also laughed :" ;you worry about me not decent ,I use eecstasy is good .You say ,l spring powder R ,or l wind month for R? " ;Chen Tuan had her three child ,and she put the sunspot away ,just nodded: " ;eecstasy eventually safer, I also have method can solve .
|Wednesday, 30-May-2012 03:01
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Waterproof guide waterproof and leakage stopping commonly known
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|Tuesday, 29-May-2012 01:56
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A new place slurp
Decided to change a place needs a place of his own to act recklessly and care for nobody to talk to say words to want to say there was already do not feel where there do not want to let others know of ,Adidas with Wings
my life don't need others in my life have I don't need to dodge it evaluation mind the people closest to me the most unfair judgement I can only say that they don't understand me how to understand me is
good and friends for a long time friend watching me stumbles through to not love only a small part of the people to understand that only they can understand my the doings and only they can hear my heart
sometimes believe a person only needs a second time and I also because such a personality to open their tells their inner world however for always it's too soon happen trust in exchange for cheating hurt
and finally left alone to hide but it is because of this and found me this little part of me and let me never abandon them let me one after another on this is my friendship several close relativesLove
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family is the child in the home care regardless of how we will also do not stop for our expectations and as I like them even if they are not careful life career all but the friendship will not appear impurity
|Tuesday, 29-May-2012 01:55
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Huang Zongxi and his administration thought
Introduction mm Huang Zongxi and administrative thoughts of (a ) Chinese traditional administrative ideas summation. Traditional administrative thoughts 1 is theancient people in the administrative practice in the form of subjective ideas and insights into the general ,theoretical ,Adidas with Wings,systematic administration .
It is one of the social life of the various administrative activities ,and the phenomenon of hidden behind the various administrative relation and contradiction movement of the conscious ,systematic reflection to Chinese traditional administrative ideas .
The main research is from Xia and Shang Xin Hai revolution into four thousand years of history in a number of important politicians and thinkers administrative view ,idea and theory. These precious Chinese national administrative heritage ,by the ancient politician ,thinker ,to traditional Chinese administrative management system build and perfect provide useful nutrition ,on Contemporary Chinese administrative management also has enlightening .
Chinese traditional administrative ideas about the functions of the government ,the central and local governments ,human nature ,talent selection ,the official management ,administrative principle, discussed has many high perspicacity ,for which we analyze and solve contemporary Chinese similar administrative problems have the significance .
The older generation proletariat revolutionaries had After successfully to safeguard a country to transform the traditional ideas and use. As to Marx struggle theory and the theory of the state and the traditional rule of virtue ,virtue ,the rule of law principle of the combination ,create a state system of people Theory ;Marx mass ,leadership with the Chinese traditional thought of people oriented ,Shang Xian Ren can thought combined, forming a mass line of Chinese Communist Party and appoint people on their merit the cadre line ,to Marx strategic thought and ancient Chinese political strategy and decision-making thought together, formed a strong ethnic characteristics of the strategy of leadership .
It indicates that the traditional administrative ideas should not be sages for our generation burden, bound our thoughts and words and deeds ,but should also can pass through careful filtering ,so that the wisdom of ancient sages put light.
1,Chinese traditional administrative ideas :bringing peace to the country road. As long thought of the people ,the people ,people ,people ,people ,people ,people ,raise teaching Mencius advocated .
" ;people are expensive, and the second, king of light ,Xunzi " ;" ;water carry a boat ,water is covered in a boat " ;Tang Taizong " ;Jun according to the country ,country According to the people ,Zhu Yuanzhang " ;the thought in the history is the representative .
" ;" or " ;justice ;private world ,this is " ;and governing administrative thought is closely related to the principles of Confucius advocated the whole world as one community .
" ;" ;,against the world as home. Huang Zongxi the autocratic monarchy to the world as private property ,advocated to " or " ;constraint ;monarch. Thought of administrative organization .
Such as legalism advocated in the administrative organization of the supreme command to unified " ;a statue of Confucius ,Han Fei " ;theory ;for the establishment of administrative advisory bodies to assist the monarch administrative advice ;Li Si proposed the abolition of feudalism ,implementation of the system of prefectures and counties ;Qin Shihuang established a strong central government agencies ,carry out the system of prefectures and counties ;Han Zhong long the sole business ideas ;Jia Yi initiated and as the most politicians and thinkers pursued Qiangganruozhi " ;" ;," ;the big end of small " ;," ;heavy and light " ;administrative organization theory ;Sima Guang about the proper permits local perspectives ;the abolition of prime minister Zhu Yuanzhang ,segmentation is right ,aggrandizement supervises thought ;Huang Zongxi set the party town advocate and so on.
Administrative thought. Its main content is to talent and Riji Shige ;To cognition ,talent standards ,identification ,Yucai ,selection method ,related institutions and officials configuration ,improve administrative efficiency ,strengthen Lianzheng to build ,perfect the official selection ,evaluation and so on.
Administrative reform thought. Includes many more law reform thought ,advocate ,the content of this measure is abolish administrative shortcomings ,sound administrative system. Administrative leadership and decision-making thought .
It mainly includes the statesman and the thinker on the principles of leadership ,method ,system ,function ,quality ,and decision-making mechanism ,procedure ,method of point of view and view .
Thought of administrative law ,law is the national governing tool .Administrative supervision thought. It mainly included the history of outstanding politicians and thinkers on supervision mechanism reform ,assessment and supervision of the administrative supervision function ,task ,scope ,way ,the official selection ,supervision system in the views and ideas.
On Chinese traditional administrative thought of so much ,which is worth learning and reference a lot of places ,but ,these thoughts are located in the multitude of books ,not from one one extracted, however ,Chinese traditional administrative ideas have common features .
2,China The traditional administration thought basic characteristics: emphasizing the statue of king ,in the Chinese traditional administrative ideas ,respect your ideas ingrained . Most outstanding politicians and thinkers have advocated administrative management to the monarch as the axis, to your life administration, this is the first principle of administrative management .
Strengthening the sovereign authority ,strengthen the centralized rule ,all without exception to the monarch as the starting point and end-result .But during the late Ming and early Qing Huang Zongxi but with the totalitarian politics extremely dissatisfied ,you wrote Ming Yi to interview ,will be directed at the feudal rulers ,although at that time were considered for the main character ,is expecting a ruler, to achieve his political ideal.
However ,from a historical point of view ,he has a profound and realistic spirit ,to be out of the feudal society of the key system barrier, put almost democracy slogans ," ;the world as king as guest " ;,on Chinese democratic revolutionary impact.
Advocate people ,Chinese history of outstanding statesman and thinker in the Zunjun while, also put great emphasis on people .from the book " " ;people-oriented ;the spring and Autumn Period Confucius benevolence ," ;" ;" ;and " " ,Mencius ;Gui Jun ;the people Light " ;and so on ,can see the people-oriented thought is of long standing ,come down in one line ,is to safeguard a country .
People is the core content that people :" ;" ;on the whole political system has an important role in emphasizing the administration should conform to public morale ,execute people, people ,people ,Xu Min policy.
Although Chinese traditional people thought is rich in content ,but also the omnipresent influence and guidance of politicians and thinkers on the administrative program design. However ,its people the essential aim not only people ,but in respect of Jun and maintain the despotic rule ,respecting emperor and people are identical in nature ,played in history the relieving social contradiction ,limitation and weakening of tyranny ,valuable ,but it is not equal to the democratic thought in late Ming and early Qing Dynasty ,until the big thinkers from Huang Zongxi to Chinese traditional thought to undertake serious summary ," ;cover the world revolution ,not a surname in the rise and fall of nations ,and in the joy from " ;Chinese people is the voice of the Lord ,by this time ,a feudal society to decline gradually ,Chinese democracy consciousness also is in grow slowly .
Pay attention to government officials ,in the administrative execution of links of Chinese traditional administrative ideas particularly heavy As the official governance, advocated by the government officials to governance by civil administration target .
Such measures ,Adidas Mickey Mouse oh,Zun Yin Ren ,strict examination ,reward and punishment, strengthen supervision, to cheap and so on . In punishing corruption ,respect you ,people ,government officials throughout China administrative thought history ,become Chinese biography the basic characteristics of traditional administrative ideas ,traditional administrative ideas are therefore started .
And realist thinkers Huang Zongxi but this administrative thoughts are put forward on the basis of their different from the previous claims, starting from the system to know society ,politics and history, began to rule under Kunihira Ta " ;" ;ways ,from the simple attention " slim ,Qijia ;" ;,and development for the further emphasis on rotting system reform.
This is Chinese administration thought history an epoch-making progress ,it marks the Chinese advanced intellectuals from the system itself society. Huang Zongxi administrative thoughts which is rooted in the traditional administrative ideas in the fertile soil ,have their the breaking place ,especially his " ;Jun harm on " ;put forward, on the national taxation " ;accumulation not return to kill " ,and administrative supervision ;" ;public is not at school and so on point " ;To place him in the Chinese Enlightenment thinkers position.
After three hundred years of democratic reform people Liang Qichao had claimed by the Ming Yi to interview thought influence ," ;thirty years ago ( Liang Shucheng in 1923 ,when mm author according to ) our student, as the stimulation of youth were most force stimulants ,www.nikeairfoamposite1.com ",my own political movement ,can be said to be affected by this book on the first and the most deep " ;,he praised :" ;Lizhou has a strange book ,called Ming Yi to interview .
From the youth today look to like ,though unexciting, but three hundred years ago, mm Lu SaO (i.e. Rousseau mm note ) about people born of decades before this comment ,not one of human culture noble product " ;,and praised Huang Zongxi " ;indeed contain democratic spirit of MM although very naive mm for three thousand years of autocratic political thought is very bold against " ;( see China Liang Qichao nearly three hundred years of academic history .
) Huang Zongxi is the spirit of democracy on the later Wu Xu reform movement and Xin Hai Revolution played a great ideological enlightenment ,Liang Qiqi and Sun Zhongshan both had secretly printed Ming Yi to interview ,and widely circulated .
( two) Huang Zongxi mm Chinese traditional line Politics thought epitomizes Huang Zongxi ( 1610-1695)as the Ming and Qing Dynasties famous thinkers ,historians ,was later referred to as the modern democratic thought of the enlightenment ,the patriot .
Taichong ,number Nanlei ,and number Lizhou ,Zhejiang Yuyao. Representative of Ming Yi to interview ,Nanlei ,anthology of song and Yuan Dynasties case study ,Jeremy Scott Adidas Wings,Ming Confucianism case and so on .
Politically ,he lashed out at the autocratic monarchy .Academic ,opposed to talk ,advocate pragmatism .Chinese traditional administrative ideas is a lot of Huang Zongxi administration thought rich source ,his father was the Ming Dynasty, the imperial ,Shandong served as the road to supervise the censor ,L.
the " " ;East ;school .His rough life, much calamity ,through the country and home to change, from the Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty people happy ," ;half foreshore ten dead ,two fire during year " ;living on his great stimulus to his thought ,a greater impact ,and his great knowledge but also because rough and strive for further improvement .
During the reign of Kangxi ,who recommended Huang Zongxi to Kangxi describing him " ;Huang Zongxi Zhejiang ,learning, life eighty ,especially had ." ;but Huang Zongxi several times by called ,are not Shi Qing .
At the age of 53, Huang Zongxi wrote The famous Ming Yi to interview ,the politics and history monographs summarizing his administration thought .A total of 21, divided into Yuanjun ,,Yuanchen original law ,the phase ,school ,take person ,people get down on ,capital ,town ,Tian ,a field for two ,three ,tin soldier system a ,soldier ,two ,three soldiers making money plan a ,financial accounting ,two three .
,the ,official ,on the Amami Amami under Huan .This book text is very characteristic, is the Huang Zongxi administration thought integrated book ,condensed Huang Zongxi of the Chinese feudal society for nearly half a century of research ,he sums up the essence of State Administration ,through the history reflection on feudal society ,a sharp criticism ,and by virtue of the summer ,business ,Wednesday generation administrative ideal ,to ancient restructuring.
Ming Yi to interview than Rousseau social contract 100 years earlier,some people call it " " ;Universal Declaration of human rights ;Huang Zongxi contemporary thinkers Gu Yanwu said :" ;read this book ,can know the past history of all imperial system Drawbacks of .
" ;Ming Yi to interview against the monarchy ,advocate for civil rights ,at the end of Qing Dynasty, the reform movement of 1898 greatly influencedLiang Qichao in Qing academic studies in an article said: " ;Liang Qichao ,Tan Si peers advocating civil rights and Republic said ,the Book Festival copy ,print the secret ,spread ,in the late Qing Dynasty thought change ,extremely powerful and .
" ;and known as " ;human culture of noble products " ( ;Liang Qichao :nearly three hundred years of Chinese academic history .) Huang Zongxi has experienced the rise and fall of a nation ,system change ,its environment and society ,and political change in status, so that to his country the administration has its own unique views ,he profoundly reflect the thousands of years of feudal society in essence ,which he made with Chinese traditional administrative thought core concept is not the same voice, his " ;you said ," ;" damage ;Jun trolling wood " ;" ;said ,it is not in the public school " ;" ;people advocate ,granted to " tin ;formulation ,have shown the centralized system of opposition ,reflects the traditional people-based thought glory ,with democratic enlightenment color .
The democracy thought is budding planting in the later Chinese history of numerous aspiring to Chinese reform in English The male head. Many years later ,when we had walked into the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics today ,Premier Wen Jiabao in face of the rural tax and fee reform dilemma ,to the people of the whole country have a guarantee of confidence :" ;Communist Party of people will be able to break through the l Huang Zongxi r" ;.
So ,what is " ;Huang Zongxi " ,this law ;law proposed what is the historical background ,produce what kind of effect ;Huang Zongxi opinions on paper ,about the central division of power ,on the administrative supervision of the proof, in the following article will briefly discuss, because knowledge is limited, some inappropriate place needs further research and discussion purposes only .
Text extracted from Huang Zongxi administration thought in some worth our vigilance and miss the place ,draw lessons from the traditional administrative ideas of the essence, to improve the modern administrative management related aspects.
A ,Huang Zongxi administration thought of Taxation view mm " ;Huang Zongxi ( a ) " ;" ;Huang Zongxi " ;the historical background to discuss what is " ;Huang Zongxi " ,I ;no theory .
First we need to review a Under the feudal society land policy ,agriculture in ancient China was the most important production department ,in order to give priority to a unit of production in agriculture and a cottage industry of smallholder economy, feudal mode of production of the main base.
The late Ming and early Qing decades of war ,so that all parts of the country there are a large number of barren land .Emperor Kangxi ordered the Manchu nobility enclosure afterwards ,encourage a farmer to reclaim wasteland ," ;permanent associate for the industry .
At the same time to implement " ;" ;renamed field " ;,the Ming Dynasty Prince scattered around land to the original principal tenant farmers ," ;improving people name " ;,make farming to the number increased greatly.
The rectification of taxes and corvee, Kangxi Dahir " ;breeding population never add Fu " ;Yong Zheng " ,implementation farmland ;" ;since late Ming Dynasty ,the tortured smallholder economic recovery and development played a positive role .
But because of official corruption ,the burden of the farmer is very heavy. The Qing Dynasty in order to curb the illegal exploitation of the officers of the farmer ,execute paid officials on the silver honesty system " ;" ;but under the feudal system ,improving salary does not eliminate official corruption.
Many officials in a " ;" the silver honesty ;After the farmer ,still on the " ;transverse sent excessive syndrome " ;,fill one .Face this kind of situation ,Huang Zongxi thundered :" ;alas !I see the world of Fu daily ,then the people trapped in the .
" day ;at that time the farmer land ,and the land was the Royal ,the eunuch ,and local although occupied ,Adidas Jeremy Scott Teddy Bear,taxes or service special ,take the Jiangnan area ," ;a trapped in the ode, then trapped in the battle ,cap has skin and bone deposits shall be " ;( a little Fu ) Huang Zongxi to reduce farmer burden ,advocate reducing taxes.
In order to enable the people to live ,he also proposed the " world " ;public ;system. In Huang Zongxi ,the reform of land system ,the ideal is to restore the Ida system. So he advocated " ;neat are " ;,that land should be recovered for all countries, and then evenly distributed to farmers .
He also advocated the " ;grant of land to the people ,to what one is .Not grant field ,in twenty-one .In order to achieve social " ;Grant Thornton " ;,reduce the country burden ,improve people life ,it is a national economic measures ,and is a social welfare measures.
The well-field system in ancient China was the rural commune economic form ,by the state in accordance with the population of grant of land The award ,Noda " to " ;wells ;word evenly divided ,make land cultivated ,harvest ,the fields will be one of a field crop as taxes over ,actually is " ;the tithing .
" ;in Huang Zongxi Ming Yi to interview - land system .Said :" ;scholar said: Ida is not complex ,benevolence ,all people was spacious spacious .Who knows the Wei ,Jin ,Tang Han Zhimin and trapped ,Song Zhimin is trapped in the Wei ,Jin ?The world and people, rather only in Ida is no longer on the money given today !For the South; southern Fu to Qian and heavy ,song never change ;to a Shicheng and heavy ,have also never change.
" ;Jinyu tax ,shall be the accumulation of prior to system giving land to the people, to what one is not awarded ;Tian ,twenty-one as its accounts .Think to maintain an army of Fu, country with no deficiencies ,and what to expose tax !He also pointed out that the tax effect, in order to maintain an army ,state taxes are used up ,why cruel tax ?" ;but the king and the world, which will allow earth to ,out of hundred Valley Fu 100 Valley,a person having to Fu Sangma ,sundries are assigned the Andean people out ,not to sleepy time I !" ;" ;this measure the world land ,its value in the field of law, two There were 240 step fora mu, or as four hundred and eighty steps a mu, or as seven hundred and twenty steps a mu, then action in three hundred and sixty steps ,six hundred steps for mu ,five quarters of the .
" ;" ;so to this day and tax City ,silver is one-way ,thought the world big harm . Covered with silver note to wrap ,silver Lichu ,note to Shu ,the element of grain tax ,discount bills not broken silver .
This note can neither ,money is only in use, in tribute ,make 100 worksand in a way ,then silver exhaustive .Yuan and vertical lifting division ,buy gold ,gold and silver field opened ,each people mountain chain ,while gold silver for the folk who still .
This mine closed ,a mining ,and the Gongnu master ,to large ,and folk with ,then silver exhaustive ." ;the amount of revenue is a number after all ,Huang Zongxi has his own the calculation method of the land ,what ,with what to tax ,to make both ends meet ,not to be exploited to farmer no rest.
He said ,the land should be according to certain quantity measuring ,divided into levels, different level land tax is different. He also criticized silver generation tax method ,state tax unification with the silver ,to the people in trouble ,people will be two aspects of the press ,to promote the use of money instead of silver Two .
The about land reform ideas ,can be said that he is in the land system of democratic thought. He had visions of the future is " " ;to enrich the people ;world. He thought ,if his mind to do ,it can cancel the feudal land tenure, give a peasant with land ,make it become the free man.
Huang Zongxi raised by these claims ,is on the history of the times of reform of tax and fee issued after your feeling .Every time after duty expends reform ,farmer burden in the fall after a period of time will rise to a higher level before reform ,to the objective of the reform on the back.
Especially as the more famous the Qin Dynasty " ;what tax " ," ;Ming Dynasty ;a whip " ;,the reform not to start and end with vigour and vitality ,soundless and stirless ,every time reform will miscellaneous syndrome into the tax ,but later shows new miscellaneous syndrome ,so move in circles ,folk Scot continuously exacerbation of Huang Zongxi in Ming Yi to interview .
this cropland made three made incisive analysis ,reveals the phenomenon of a history, the history of every make and tax reform ,will create a miscellaneous sent climax. Later generations this " ;accumulation not return to kill " phenomenon ;for & Huang Zongxi of quot ;" ;more specifically ,Huang Zongxi about the feudal system summarizes three harm ,including " ;people suffering ,violence tax long ,accumulate not return to kill ,not to tax the harm ,there is no such land .
." ;" ;what is the accumulation of not return to kill ?Three generation tribute ,help ,penetration ,stop tax land .The households ,tone ,Arita rental Fu, households fabric ,field outside the complex user .
." ;" " 2;Huang Zongxi ;to the Chinese tax reform has sounded the alarm bell ,how to reduce farmer burden ,normative country tax ,is the head of state are issues to consider ,in the spring and autumn when there is " ;tyranny is fiercer than tigers also " ;exposition ,Huang Zongxi profoundly exposed the feudal autocratic rulers to people under the disc cut ,only to regulate administrative management ,find taxes rising source ,control the retrofit tax means ,to overcome the " ;accumulation not return to kill " ;,give people benefits, make a country stable .
( two) the Communist Party must be able to walk out of Huang Zongxi " ;" ;trap Huang Zongxi in seventeenth Century summary of the " ;Huang Zongxi in " ;Society Marxism Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao finally get attention ,Adidas Jeremy Scott Leopard,in the time of about reducing farmer burden conference speech pointed out :" ;history of tax reform had not once during the Tang Dynasty .
Like l R ,Adidas Originals M Attitude Logo,two tax law of Ming Dynasty when l R ,a whip in the Qing Dynasty when the L farmland r etc. Every time after duty expends reform ,because at that time the limitation of social politics environment, farmer burden is in fall after a period of time will rise to a higher level before reform ,to the original objective of the reform on the back.
In the period of Ming and Qing thinker Huang Zongxi called l accumulation not return to kill R ,this is the history of the famous L Huang Zongxi r." ;" ;the Communists are thoroughly for the benefit of the people .
We will be able to put the town of body lean down ,will be able to put too much to support them to cut down, will be out of the L Huang Zongxi R quot law circle you ;maybe Huang Zongxi in the paper " ;people suffering violence tax " ;when, no thought at several years later ,someone will his problem out to do systematic research ,and true to solve farmer problem.
His administration thought beyond the obvious when the general of Ming loyalists because Juanhuai motherland and the study of the fall of the Ming The purpose of the Qing scholarship ,also extends beyond the traditional Confucianism on the ruler category.
His thought has broken through the traditional political structure, opened the first democratic ideas in modern China .His outstanding achievements are beyond time and space ,there is a historical reference ,Communists hold to with civilian for this, as the Prime Minister .
That sentence ,communists will be out of Huang Zongxi " ;" ;circle ,this is the new era of reform of the tax system of an ideal ,but we are the outstanding thinkers in seventeenth Century raised the incisive point of view ,looking as generations of Chinese society ,can avoid " ;Huang Zongxi " of the circle ,yet ;to be the people ,in the final analysis ,or administrative management department main task, and the final can be implemented with civilian for this ,must strengthen the national all levels of departments and the tax system for the correct formulation and effective implementation .
In the opinion of the author ,in China to overcome Huang Zongxi " ;" ;,administration from the following aspects : first ,the administrative transparency is important, let broad tax people understand the national tax policy ,especially broad farmer ,should know the amount of revenue , standard ,understand when free ,when paying taxes.
Not blinded people. So that on the one hand to the government management will bring convenience ,on the other hand, so that the people support the national tax policy. Second ,reduced the State Administration ,reduce government spending .
The tax with most of the public infrastructure ,will be some not essential institution revoked. Improving the quality of civil servants ,improve administrative efficiency ,the appropriate streamlining of staff ,make a bloated body light up ,from the source control of tax project ,promote the development of productivity .
Third ,strengthen the leading cadres at all levels of Ideological and political education ,forming a socialist with Chinese characteristics national administrative ethics . Truly to people for this, representing the fundamental interests of the people ,from people real interests ,put one the ground to serve the people.
Two ,Huang Zongxi administration thought of democratic concept of mm" ;the world as king as guest " ;referred to Chinese traditional administrative ideas, first of all is the monarch ,minister, and the relationship between the three ,as well as around between the three launch of a series of national administrative management activities.
In Chinese traditional administrative ideas ,has a very prominent advocates Is the people thought .But ,in the Chinese traditional administrative ideas ,respect your ideas ingrained .
Most outstanding politicians and thinkers have advocated administrative management to the monarch as the axis, to your life administration, this is the first principle of administrative management .
Politicians and thinkers have used this principle analysis of administrative problems ,to follow the principle of design of administrative system ,make the administrative scheme. Therefore ,the traditional people-based thought is in the recognition of the autocratic monarchy supreme authority under the premise ,put forward " ;num.
" for the " ;" ;.This contradiction is doomed it to achieve the administrative concept of basic crux .Along with feudal decline of decadent ,inevitable meeting makes some of them through the thoughts of people against the imperial authority dictatorial rule.
Huang Zongxi is one of the outstanding representatives ,He Jun ,Chen ,for people of the relationship between the three new balance ,to do detailed analysis in this paper. Huang Zongxi boldly breaks through the barriers of royalism ,his voice ,will thousands of years people take for granted the unequal relationship between the emperor made revisited ,near his proposed equality ideas.
His Ming Yi to interview the article A Yuanjun of come to the point ,point out :" ;at the beginning of the birth ,selfishness ,self-interest and the ." ;i.e. the world people have inalienable rights and interests.
But later monarch was " ;the right to think that the world or do for me " ;,3will be the worldas their private property ,with a strong family thought." ;the world is not selfish ,not selfish ,to my great private world of big company " ;4,under the guidance of this idea ,Adidas Bones we can really help you achieve all,so do the monarch who ,without a prior ," ;world of life has the world of children ,discrete ,Bo I one of the industry for their own 5"" ;" ,regardless of industry ;people live or die ;in which you later, " ;knock pare the world marrow ,discrete world of the children ,to serve me a man then " ;monarch in spite of such people .
Life ,will be the world as his own property ,Huang Zongxi was depicted most incisive ,penetrating to the monarch was depicted ." ;" ;acts fundamentally denied the legitimacy of Huang Zongxi made it clear that the world is not peaceful, people are suffering unceasingly, is a " ;" ;results :" ;This is to you ,the world as a guest ,where the world without and peace ,for you !" ;" ;the world ,and ,you just carry on " ;( Yuanjun ) ,is very clear the autocratic monarchy system refers to all evil .
Since Jun is the essence of so ,then what is the relationship between the monarch and officials ,the monarch for the people and is a role, Huang Zongxi said a ) for the people of the world mainly mm" ;King passengers " ;Huang Zongxi through the ancient dust to make the system interpretation ,pointing out the monarch to the world and remove all evil .
Specifically ,it is :" ;not to has a benefit for profit, but to the world by its profit ;not to his own against damage ,and to make the world release and ." ;" ;the world as king as guest ,where I had completed the world while the operator ,for the world is l .
" ;in other words ,people for the world hard busy is the ancient monarch duty and duty. He points out clearly ,then China formed by the king ,the world is a guest, the world man-made Jun political situation is inverted relationship ,he cited the examples ,to demonstrate " ;Jun ,the " ,is the ancient administrative thinking ;deviation .
Qualified monarch should be " ;this is the The hard work will do to the world people. Husband to tens of millions of times as industrious and is not clean ,will not favor the for the home world of the " ;.
On the minister ,Huang Zongxi points out ,is not for the king " ;and also " ;,so his duty not to see the monarch of the cue ,and even kill them to you are wrong ,his duties but " ;for the world is " ;" ;for all peoples also " ;,with all the nations about music as their responsibility.
Therefore ,even if the " ;the monarch with sound strong I ,not dare from " ;;even " ;conduct in the in " ;. For the monarch when the behavior ,also not dare " ;Xu also " ;for the world .
Those who cannot ,only to kill everything you people ,can only be " ;" ," eunuch wives ;;private intimate person .In Huang Zongxi ," ;his conduct is the basis for the same act ,is to the world and remove all evil .
From the national management perspective, Huang Zongxi thinks his combination of the two is out of state large general administrative management needs of the mission ,and his job is the same ,all is for people ,serving the people .
Existence is not to please you ,not your " ;and " ;to alert you .His relationship in a malpractice :" ;for his contempt for people who ,fire and water ,which can promote the auxiliary ruler ,from the king died ,in his tract solid not back .
" ;Huang Zongxi concluded :" ;for the world of big bad ,you just carry on .If without you ,every man selfish ,one each from ." ;and on the basis of this ,Huang Zongxi sent the three generation of the banner, called " ;ancient person to the world ,the king passengers ,where I had completed the world while the operator ,for the world is " ;.
" ;cover the world revolution ,not a surname in the fall in sorrow and joy ,people " ;.This raises the king and people in the world who is main problem ,and a clear idea of the world people world ,you just work for the interests of the people public servant .
From Huang Zongxi we can see, his idea for the world thought and ancient people Bensi want to have certain difference. The feudal society " ;the " is based on the expectation ;feudal national long period of stability of political needs .
But the feudal economic base and superstructure are class exploitation as the premise ,the people-oriented thought and the system of exploitation has a natural contradiction ,this decided the people thought inevitable because " ;two laws deviated by " ;Various restrictions, and eventually become a cannot achieve political talk .
Two thousand years of Chinese feudal society of the political ecology ,is actually on the thought of the people trampled on .Huang Zongxi mercilessly ridicules and feudal autocratic system of criticism ,has touched the traditional thought of people as the key, revealed the modern enlightenment .
Liang Qichao said ,Ming Yi to interview of his generation youth produced profound effect, it is very obvious democratic enlightenment thought .( two) mm" total decentralization ;trolling wood also " ;Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang abrogated the prime minister system in ancient China is a great reform in the administrative system ,it makes the autocratic to anodize ,become the basic reason of the corruption in the Ming Dynasty political anomaly .
Huang Zongxi has the feeling that cuts skin .He review in Ming Dynasty political gains ,will ,as the first phase of Ming Dynasty politics disadvantages. He said :" ;Ming without good governance ,from the emperor ,the prime minister was also " .
The Ming Dynasty ;political darkness corruption is one of the most important symbols of eunuch politics, while the eunuch politics is rooted in the system of prime minister was abolished. The reason why Huang Zongxi on the prime minister system put forward their own doubts ,there has been a long history of Ming Dynasty Prime Minister system comparison .
Twists and turns in the Ming Dynasty ,the beginning of the establishment of the system of the Yuan Dynasty ,which is ,to the Secretariat for the central institution ,located around the prime minister ,manager of governmental affairs ,about Cheng ,参知政事,officer Hongwu six years ,Hu Weiyong was appointed as prime minister by Prime Minister missing left ,right ,has become the de facto " ;single phase & quot the prime minister ;causing a deterrent to centralize power on major issues ,to the power of the emperor ,Hongwu thirteen years ,Zhu Yuanzhang rebellion charges kill Hu Weiyong and a large number of Pro Hu officials ,and abolished the system of prime minister ,and announced that the " ;ministers dare played please set ,civil and military officials instant impeach played ,at " ;6phase,in the central government ,the Department of government ,school ,temple, independent ,responsible directly to the emperor ,the emperor actually mastered is right.
Because of heavy national government ,Emperor and imperial power and phase right palm ,unavoidably, all by herself, it is bound to influence the government decision-making and execution efficiency, and the emperor for a variety of trivial affairs pesters a body, it is suffer unspeakably .
Phase two years later ,and modelled on the song set a house ,Yi Wu ,Wen Huadian ,Wenyuan Pavilion ,East Pavilion the bachelor ,assist the marking memorialize ,handle affairs .The university is the cabinet system originated .
Huang Zongxi believed ,because of The world is too large ,a person can control ,so " ;divided by group 7",namely through the division of responsibility ,common rule the world .
" ;husband to govern the world and trolling woodenly . The former sing sing a evil ,the latter ,the monarch and his subjects ,total drag wood also " ;he will his parables .As for trolling wood man that his division ,except a slightly different ,there is no much difference between the emperor ,the nature of things .
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On the road traffic safety law after the implementation of road
The identification of road traffic accidents and damages in order to properly ,the timely processing of road traffic accident cases ,in accordance with the law to protect the legitimate rights and interests, maintain social stability ,according to China road traffic safety law ,Civil Procedure Law ,general principles of civil law ,road traffic safety law ,the Supreme People on the trial personal injury compensation case interpretation of several issues as well as the Ministry of public security traffic accident processing procedures and other relevant provisions ,combine me the province is actual ,offer following opinions :one ,save the cost of the payment and the preservation of property 1,applying the general procedure of handling traffic accident ,the traffic administrative department of public security shall try to identify the owner of the vehicle ,the actual innervation of human ,driver name ,domicile ,contact way and the vehicle is in the motor vehicle third party liability compulsory insurance ,the insurance companies and insurance liability limit and other related information .
2,traffic accidents caused casualties ,the traffic administrative department of public security shall be in accordance with the road traffic safety law seventy-fifth ,the implementation of road traffic safety law regulations and other relevant provisions of article ninetieth insurance company or social rescue fund Management institutions pay the rescue expenses ,also can inform drivers of motor vehicles ,all the people ,the actual control people pay the rescue expenses.
Traffic accidents causing death ,corpse disposal costs are paid with reference to the provisions of the preceding paragraph .Insurance companies ,Nike Air Foamposite Pro As a full-time blogger,social rescue fund management mechanism ,motor vehicle drivers ,all the people ,the actual control people in the time of payment, the traffic administrative department of public security shall timely production of traffic accident by the parties ,and shall notify the case to the people and apply for advance execution .
The people filed ,and a ruling for prior execution in 3,applying the general procedure of handling traffic accident ,the traffic administrative department of public security shall timely accident detain the vehicle .
For uninsured motor vehicle third party liability compulsory insurance for the vehicle ,in accordance with the road traffic safety law, the provisions of article ninety-eighth .The insured motor vehicle third party liability compulsory insurance for the vehicle ,according to the Ministry of public security procedural regulations for handling traffic accidents in thirty-ninth ,forty-second and other relevant provisions for all motor vehicles .
People ,actual control people written application to pay the accident responsibility margin ,can be The permission. In pay equivalent to bear all the responsibility of damage compensation amount of margin, the traffic administrative department of public security inspection ,identification can be after the completion of the vehicles to be returned ,Adidas Bones,but without ,assembling ,achieve discard as useless standard without lawful source of vehicle excepted.
4,public security traffic management departments in traffic accident later, shall inform the parties of the rights and obligations of parties ,led by legal ways to solve the problems of the damage compensation related to detain the vehicle .
Technical inspection and identification ,the traffic administrative department of public security in accordance with the law on technical inspection and identification conclusion ,shall inform the parties of the traffic administrative department of public security of vehicle frame with no return ,the insured motor vehicle the compulsory third party liability insurance vehicle or while the insured motor vehicle third party liability compulsory insurance but traffic accident damage compensation amount may exceed the motor vehicle third party liability compulsory insurance liability limit ,the traffic administrative department of public security shall inform the parties may apply to the people property preservation before litigation .
5,parties to the people property preservation, the people the court shall review ,to meet the requirements, should make timely Order to preserve the property . The people to make the property to preserve the ruling, such as order the parties concerned to provide the guarantee, the parties may provide security on property ,also can provide guarantee guarantee guarantor shall have legal income or assets ,have the capacity to perform the duty of guarantee ,and a written guarantee .
6,the people property preservation measures vehicle ,should be based on the actual situation in the ruling explicitly in the custody of the vehicle the place and way .By the traffic control department of the public security detained vehicles ,in principle does not change the storage place .
Two ,traffic accident identification 7,in a road traffic accident ,the traffic administrative department of public security shall be in accordance with the relevant provisions of the accident reason ,determine the responsibility of the parties ,and will be detained vehicles returned to the owner of the vehicle or the actual control people prior to the traffic accident ,served on the parties (including all motor vehicles ,the actual control people ) .
After investigation ,did not determine the fact of a traffic accident ,the traffic administrative department of public security shall be detained the vehicle is returned to the party before ,according to the procedures for handling traffic accidents regulations provisions related to produce traffic accident affirmation letter ,served on the parties .
8,Because of traffic accident party in rescue or coma special reason, unable to collect the evidence ,and no other evidence in support of the fact of a traffic accident ,as a public security traffic management department approval, traffic accident time may suspend the calculation ,but stop time no longer than two months.
The causes of termination is eliminated, should make timely identification of traffic accidents ;suspension time expires party is still in a coma ,the traffic administrative department of public security may refer to the views of the provisions of article seventh .
9,traffic accident casualties unknown but other basic facts are clear, the traffic administrative department of public security may issue accident and accident liability ,unidentified persons can use " ;anonymous " ;expression .
10,traffic accidents author who abandons a car to escape ,the traffic control department of the public security investigation and announcement ,unable to find the escape from traffic accident human ,the traffic administrative department of public security may be the victim requirements issued by the traffic accident ,report on unidentified parties can use " ;XX driver " ;" ,Adidas Mickey Mouse," ;anonymous ;word representations .
11,at or above the county level shall organize the traffic control department of the public security The Department inspector ,vehicle production ,vehicle repair technical personnel of enterprises or institutions ,research institutes set up technical professionals vehicle inspection team ,responsible for the area of accident vehicle safety and technical inspection.
Three ,traffic control department of the public security traffic damage compensation adjustment 12,the traffic administrative department of public security in the processing of road traffic accident, in a traffic accident or traffic accident before delivery ,shall inform the parties apply for traffic control department of the public security mediation or directly to the people lawsuit ,the parties to the mediation application and send a blank book.
13,public security traffic management departments should conscientiously do a good job in the mediation work ,reach an agreement through mediation ,should prompt a conciliation statement ,served on the parties .
If mediation fails to reach a mediation agreement, shall prepare a mediation document to the end of the parties ,the conciliation agreement is not reached book should specify the reasons. 14,with a traffic accident casualties for more than 2 people ,due to the end of treatment or the residual time constant not the same ,the end of treatment or definite residual time and the dead funeral end time is not the same ,caused by The victim compensation period of mediation at the start time of each are not identical, the traffic administrative department of public security shall be according to the victim different circumstances were organized according to the condition of the mediation .
Need treatment of staging ,the traffic administrative department of public security in the first period after the end of treatment organizations mediation ,continue to seek medical treatment can cost in the opinion of the Department of after consultations between the two sides to reach a compensation agreement ,also can be to file a civil lawsuit .
Four ,to assume the responsibility of 15party,to the people Road traffic accident compensation for personal injury litigation, should be submitted to the traffic accident or between the parties on traffic accident damage compensation agreement book.
16,the parties in the traffic control department of the public security host mediation or negotiate agreements, the parties to deal with is the compensation for damages in road traffic accident consequences signed the civil contract .
The people in the trial of a case ,review by the protocol does not provide void ,voidable situations ,may be legally recognized as effective ,and make decision. 17,the victim and the motor vehicle or insurance company reached the agreement ,in addition to not attend a party to the agreement after the event to recognized outside ,the Association The meeting did not attend a party to the agreement is not binding requirements according to the agreement ,the victim can be performed ,with a party to the agreement as the defendant.
18,the parties to the traffic accident disputes ,the people in the trial of a case ,may be required to make the traffic accident that the public security traffic management departments to make a written statement or to send representatives to attend the court as a witness.
The people that public security traffic management departments to make the traffic accident not accurate ,should be written to eliciting an accident the traffic control department of the public security authorities ,the traffic control department of the public security should be in receipt of written comments on the letter within 15 days from the date of 19,make a written reply.
Motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians, traffic accidents ,according to road traffic safety law, the provisions of article seventy-sixth to reduce motor-vehicle liability ,general liability relief according to the following principles 1)non-motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians in the accident in negative secondary responsibility ,loss ratio of no more than 20% ( 2);non motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians in accident bear equal responsibility, loss ratio of no more than 40% ;( 3)non-motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians in The accident was responsible ,reducing the ratio of no more than 60% ;( 4)non-motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians in the accident responsibility ,loss ratio of less than 80%.
but non-motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians on the prohibition of non-motor vehicles and pedestrians in the city expressway ,the expressway traffic accident ,to assume full responsibility for the accident the driver ,reduce the ratio of no more than 90%.
20,according to the parties to provide evidence to the traffic accidents responsibility or the fault of the parties ,the people according to the following rules to determine the civil responsibility 1)motor vehicle and motor vehicle traffic accidents ,by accident the parties share equal civil liability ;( 2)motor vehicle and non motor vehicle drivers ,pedestrians, traffic accidents ,the vehicle by the party to bear all the civil responsibility.
( 3)a motor vehicle ,non-motorized vehicle and pedestrian traffic accident occurs between the parties by accident ,take equal civil liability. 21,the people court shall determine their respective responsibilities ,for does not exceed the limit of liability part of the range ,according to the injured party ,may make a judgment by the insurance company shall bear the liability for compensation ,can also be ruled by all motor vehicles ,vehicle .
Border control and driver are jointly and severally liable ,but also decision insurance companies and all motor vehicles ,vehicle control and driver shall assume joint and several liability .
For more than a liability limit part ,decision by all motor vehicles ,vehicle actual control people ,the driver shall assume joint and several liability .The driver is in the execution of their duty traffic the accident ,in addition to comply with the Supreme People about the trial of personal injury compensation case applicable legal interpretation of the ninth article of the cases ,the driver is not liable for damages.
22,stolen vehicles in the robbed during the traffic accidents, such as a vehicle for the compulsory third party liability insurance, the insurance company on the liability limit shall bear the liability for compensation ,the people in the limits of liability and liability .
All motor vehicles ,vehicle actual control people don assume the liability for compensation ,but the owner of the vehicle or the actual control people must provide a robbery case to the public security organs certification .
23,party believes that a medical institution fails to timely rescue the wounded to death cause or severity ,medical institutions and traffic accident compensation obligations person as a joint defendant The people should be allowed ,after review ,medical institutions exist to delay treatment situation ,according to the size of the fault and delay the cure behavior and damage causes of force ratio ,judgment in medical institutions and traffic accident compensation obligations each bear the corresponding liability for damages.
Delay the cure behavior and damage causes of force it is difficult to determine ,may entrust relevant to the identification of bodies identified .24,more than two units of motor vehicle collision, cause bodily injury ,the people in the judgment of the vehicle where the obligor to compensation of victims are jointly and severally liable ,should according to the vehicle between the size of the fault to determine their respective the share of responsibility .
One vehicle in pay should bear the responsibility to share, may give to the other party shall recourse .Five ,determining the sum of compensation for traffic accident victims in 25 ,without the original hospitalization medical institutions agree ,unauthorized transfers the treatment ,its because of referral for treatment increased costs ,the people support.
But because of the hospitalized medical institutions do not have corresponding treatment conditions did not agree to the transfer or other legitimate Reason except 26,Jeremy Scott Adidas Wings " index,where traffic accidents disable ,the traffic administrative department of public security and the people inform the parties in the disability evaluation conditions have to qualify the disability appraisal institution for assessing disability grade .
The people in the trial of cases in the process of the disability assessment results ,review ,Supreme People about civil action evidence for a number of provisions relating to the provisions of identification conclusion .
27,the victim countryside ,but when a traffic accident occurs in the cities and towns living for more than a year ,and the fixed income ,in the calculation of the compensation amount by the standards of urban residents ,to treat 28servicemen,Hongkong ,Macao ,Taiwan compatriots and overseas Chinese foreigners ,stateless persons ,and the personal injury compensation in accordance with the relevant standard of urban residents ,Air Foamposite 1,compute the amount of compensation .
29,traffic accident injury rehabilitation required nutrition fee ,depending on the victim with reference to the views of medical institutions .30,dependents age males in more than eighteen years of age ,sixty years of age ,female in more than eighteen years of age ,fifty-five years of age ,the obligee to compensation should provide labor ability identification on or above the county level people The hospital certificate should be provided at the same time ,villagers or residents prove that it has no other source of written evidence .
31,http://www.adidasswings.com/,traffic accident deaths of unknown identity ,the parties agreed to compensation for death ,according to the standard of urban residents by the method of calculating the damages. Medical identification of dead male aged twenty-three years and above ,sixty years of age the following ,women in more than twenty-one years of age ,fifty-five years old the following ,dependents are presumed to be 1 people,the cost of living dependency calculate 10 years.
" " ;DOE ;the damages incurred by the road traffic accident social rescue fund management mechanism placed in escrow. Six ,other 32,the people proceeds of vehicle traffic accident in the first ,pay for traffic accident damages after the payment vehicle safekeeping fee .
33,the people traffic accident personal injury compensation case ,according to the case of property charges .The case acceptance fee because of economic difficulties cannot be timely and full payment of litigation costs ,may apply to the people court for deferment ,reduction or exempt .
The people in accordance with the relevant provisions for review ,to decide whether to postpone, reduce or exempt .34,In the traffic accident need to bear civil compensation duty of overseas personnel ,pre-departure shall perform the obligation or provide corresponding guaranty .
35,the people the road traffic accident damage compensation cases ,may apply to the case of public security organs issued letter of certiorari or by investigators with access to public security organs dealing letter of certiorari in the case all the files .
The traffic administrative department of public security shall be in accordance with the provisions on the procedures for handling traffic accident the provisions of article sixty-ninth apply. A sentence ,the parties filed an appeal ,court of first instance of the file can be transferred along with the case the court of second instance .
The intermediate court after the end of the file with the case ,should be returned to the court of first instance of a trial .The court received in the dossier ,should be within 3 days after the dossier returned to public security traffic management department .
36,the traffic administrative department of public security in accident handling in the service of legal documents ,Adidas M Attitude Logo,apply for the public security organs administrative cases procedures provisions of article thirty-first .
37,according to road traffic safety law ,article ninth the provisions of article twelfth ,the owner of the vehicle is a vehicle to vehicle management authority for registration of the units and individuals .
" Vehicle control ;" ;refers to the vehicle transaction does not go through the transfer formalities of the buyer ( the occurrence of multiple trade did not transfer, for the last time trading relationship of the buyer ) ,recipient of the lessee ,borrower ,vehicles ,anchored and contracting operator 38,occurred before May 1, 2004 .
Traffic accident ,the people in May 1, 2004 after a trial case acceptance ,does not apply to road traffic safety law ,but can be applied to the Supreme People on the trial of personal injury compensation case interpretation on several issues in the Regulations for Guangdong Province Higher People ,Guangdong Provincial Public Security Bureau jointly issued on the treatment of traffic accident cases, a number of specific issues opinions (Guangdong method in ) and concerning the treatment of road traffic accident cases supplementary opinions (Guangdong high method )and the judicial interpretation there is no conflict between the provisions ,but also may refer .
Since May 1, 2004, the occurrence of traffic accident ,with reference to the application of this guidance law. Laws ,regulations and judicial interpretations to the new requirements ,Money is not the key to decide whether you are rich or poor standards,set from its rural household in Shenzhen traffic accident reparation standard Rural household in Shenzhen traffic accidents causing disability or death, the disability compensation and compensation for death according to what standard of compensation, Guangdong Province for the year 2004 the road traffic accident personal injury compensation calculation standard provisions of the Shenzhen urban residents per capita disposable income for 23905.
92 yuan ,but the standard of Shenzhen rural residents per capita net income standard ,only the Guangdong Province per capita net income of rural residents was 4054.58 yuan.Therefore ,almost all of the per capita think Shenzhen per capita net income of rural residents in 4054.
58 yuan of computation,the calculated result is the death compensation is the urban household registration can be awarded 478118.4 yuan ( 23905.92 yuan T20years) ,and the rural household registration only by compensate for 81091.
6 yuan ( 4054.58 yuan T20years) ,two were up to 5 times,let the rural household registration of people feel cold, feel the Chinese farmer life is cheap " ;" ;.Even more people think ,Shenzhen currently has no farmer, in Shenzhen traffic accident whether you are urban or rural are in accordance with the per capita disposable income of urban residents was 23905.
92 yuan of computation.The Supreme People Court on the trial of personal injury compensation case applicable legal interpretation twenty-fifth Article: " ;disability compensation for the victim to lose labor ability the degree or level of disability ,in accordance with the court of appeals on the location of an annual per capita disposable income of urban residents and per capita net income of rural residents the standard ,since the residue date is calculated by twenty years .
But for more than sixty years of age ,the age of each increase in age to reduce years ;more than seventy-five years of age, five years according to the provisions of article twenty-ninth :Calculation of.
" ;" ;death compensation in accordance with the court of appeals on the location of an annual per capita disposable income of urban residents and rural per capita net income standard ,calculated by twenty years .
But for more than sixty years of age ,the age of each increase in age to reduce years ;more than seventy-five years of age, five years according to the calculation of." ;in accordance with the above provisions, the compensation for disability and death compensation amount and the per capita net income of rural residents the standard is closely related ,standard difference, directly influences the traffic accident victims benefit .
Shenzhen per capita net income of rural residents in the end as to which standard according to the basis ?The Supreme People trial of personal injury compensation case applicable legal interpretation of the provisions of article thirty-fifth ,per capita net income of rural residents According to government statistics released by the Department of the provinces, autonomous regions ,municipalities directly under the central government, and special economic zones and cities specifically designated in the state plan on an annual statistical data .
Shenzhen city is a city plan ,the per capita net income of rural residents is not in accordance with the Guangdong Province standard standard calculation ,and shall, according to the statistical data of Shenzhen City ,although the Guangdong in the year of 2004 road traffic accident personal injury compensationcalculation standard is not listed in Shenzhen per capita net income of rural residents the standard ,but we can for Guangdong Province standard.
According to the Shenzhen municipal Bureau of Statistics announced March 29, 2004 Shenzhen city in 2003 national economic and social development.,Shenzhen city last year, annual farmer average per capita net income is 11346 yuan ,so Shenzhen traffic accident cases per capita net income of rural residents should be 11346 yuan as thecalculation standard .
Therefore ,rural household in Shenzhen traffic accident deaths, the death compensation should be 226920 yuan( 11346 yuanT20) ,instead of 81091.6 yuan( 4054.58 yuan of T20years) ,a difference of nearly 3 times !Note: This article applies after 1 May 2004newShenzhen court accepted the trial of traffic accident cases of compensation for personal injury ,specific Statistical data ,to the Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of statistics data shall prevail.