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Huang Zongxi and his administration thought
Introduction mm Huang Zongxi and administrative thoughts of (a ) Chinese traditional administrative ideas summation. Traditional administrative thoughts 1 is theancient people in the administrative practice in the form of subjective ideas and insights into the general ,theoretical ,Adidas with Wings,systematic administration .
It is one of the social life of the various administrative activities ,and the phenomenon of hidden behind the various administrative relation and contradiction movement of the conscious ,systematic reflection to Chinese traditional administrative ideas .
The main research is from Xia and Shang Xin Hai revolution into four thousand years of history in a number of important politicians and thinkers administrative view ,idea and theory. These precious Chinese national administrative heritage ,by the ancient politician ,thinker ,to traditional Chinese administrative management system build and perfect provide useful nutrition ,on Contemporary Chinese administrative management also has enlightening .
Chinese traditional administrative ideas about the functions of the government ,the central and local governments ,human nature ,talent selection ,the official management ,administrative principle, discussed has many high perspicacity ,for which we analyze and solve contemporary Chinese similar administrative problems have the significance .
The older generation proletariat revolutionaries had After successfully to safeguard a country to transform the traditional ideas and use. As to Marx struggle theory and the theory of the state and the traditional rule of virtue ,virtue ,the rule of law principle of the combination ,create a state system of people Theory ;Marx mass ,leadership with the Chinese traditional thought of people oriented ,Shang Xian Ren can thought combined, forming a mass line of Chinese Communist Party and appoint people on their merit the cadre line ,to Marx strategic thought and ancient Chinese political strategy and decision-making thought together, formed a strong ethnic characteristics of the strategy of leadership .
It indicates that the traditional administrative ideas should not be sages for our generation burden, bound our thoughts and words and deeds ,but should also can pass through careful filtering ,so that the wisdom of ancient sages put light.
1,Chinese traditional administrative ideas :bringing peace to the country road. As long thought of the people ,the people ,people ,people ,people ,people ,people ,raise teaching Mencius advocated .
" ;people are expensive, and the second, king of light ,Xunzi " ;" ;water carry a boat ,water is covered in a boat " ;Tang Taizong " ;Jun according to the country ,country According to the people ,Zhu Yuanzhang " ;the thought in the history is the representative .
" ;" or " ;justice ;private world ,this is " ;and governing administrative thought is closely related to the principles of Confucius advocated the whole world as one community .
" ;" ;,against the world as home. Huang Zongxi the autocratic monarchy to the world as private property ,advocated to " or " ;constraint ;monarch. Thought of administrative organization .
Such as legalism advocated in the administrative organization of the supreme command to unified " ;a statue of Confucius ,Han Fei " ;theory ;for the establishment of administrative advisory bodies to assist the monarch administrative advice ;Li Si proposed the abolition of feudalism ,implementation of the system of prefectures and counties ;Qin Shihuang established a strong central government agencies ,carry out the system of prefectures and counties ;Han Zhong long the sole business ideas ;Jia Yi initiated and as the most politicians and thinkers pursued Qiangganruozhi " ;" ;," ;the big end of small " ;," ;heavy and light " ;administrative organization theory ;Sima Guang about the proper permits local perspectives ;the abolition of prime minister Zhu Yuanzhang ,segmentation is right ,aggrandizement supervises thought ;Huang Zongxi set the party town advocate and so on.
Administrative thought. Its main content is to talent and Riji Shige ;To cognition ,talent standards ,identification ,Yucai ,selection method ,related institutions and officials configuration ,improve administrative efficiency ,strengthen Lianzheng to build ,perfect the official selection ,evaluation and so on.
Administrative reform thought. Includes many more law reform thought ,advocate ,the content of this measure is abolish administrative shortcomings ,sound administrative system. Administrative leadership and decision-making thought .
It mainly includes the statesman and the thinker on the principles of leadership ,method ,system ,function ,quality ,and decision-making mechanism ,procedure ,method of point of view and view .
Thought of administrative law ,law is the national governing tool .Administrative supervision thought. It mainly included the history of outstanding politicians and thinkers on supervision mechanism reform ,assessment and supervision of the administrative supervision function ,task ,scope ,way ,the official selection ,supervision system in the views and ideas.
On Chinese traditional administrative thought of so much ,which is worth learning and reference a lot of places ,but ,these thoughts are located in the multitude of books ,not from one one extracted, however ,Chinese traditional administrative ideas have common features .
2,China The traditional administration thought basic characteristics: emphasizing the statue of king ,in the Chinese traditional administrative ideas ,respect your ideas ingrained . Most outstanding politicians and thinkers have advocated administrative management to the monarch as the axis, to your life administration, this is the first principle of administrative management .
Strengthening the sovereign authority ,strengthen the centralized rule ,all without exception to the monarch as the starting point and end-result .But during the late Ming and early Qing Huang Zongxi but with the totalitarian politics extremely dissatisfied ,you wrote Ming Yi to interview ,will be directed at the feudal rulers ,although at that time were considered for the main character ,is expecting a ruler, to achieve his political ideal.
However ,from a historical point of view ,he has a profound and realistic spirit ,to be out of the feudal society of the key system barrier, put almost democracy slogans ," ;the world as king as guest " ;,on Chinese democratic revolutionary impact.
Advocate people ,Chinese history of outstanding statesman and thinker in the Zunjun while, also put great emphasis on people .from the book " " ;people-oriented ;the spring and Autumn Period Confucius benevolence ," ;" ;" ;and " " ,Mencius ;Gui Jun ;the people Light " ;and so on ,can see the people-oriented thought is of long standing ,come down in one line ,is to safeguard a country .
People is the core content that people :" ;" ;on the whole political system has an important role in emphasizing the administration should conform to public morale ,execute people, people ,people ,Xu Min policy.
Although Chinese traditional people thought is rich in content ,but also the omnipresent influence and guidance of politicians and thinkers on the administrative program design. However ,its people the essential aim not only people ,but in respect of Jun and maintain the despotic rule ,respecting emperor and people are identical in nature ,played in history the relieving social contradiction ,limitation and weakening of tyranny ,valuable ,but it is not equal to the democratic thought in late Ming and early Qing Dynasty ,until the big thinkers from Huang Zongxi to Chinese traditional thought to undertake serious summary ," ;cover the world revolution ,not a surname in the rise and fall of nations ,and in the joy from " ;Chinese people is the voice of the Lord ,by this time ,a feudal society to decline gradually ,Chinese democracy consciousness also is in grow slowly .
Pay attention to government officials ,in the administrative execution of links of Chinese traditional administrative ideas particularly heavy As the official governance, advocated by the government officials to governance by civil administration target .
Such measures ,Adidas Mickey Mouse oh,Zun Yin Ren ,strict examination ,reward and punishment, strengthen supervision, to cheap and so on . In punishing corruption ,respect you ,people ,government officials throughout China administrative thought history ,become Chinese biography the basic characteristics of traditional administrative ideas ,traditional administrative ideas are therefore started .
And realist thinkers Huang Zongxi but this administrative thoughts are put forward on the basis of their different from the previous claims, starting from the system to know society ,politics and history, began to rule under Kunihira Ta " ;" ;ways ,from the simple attention " slim ,Qijia ;" ;,and development for the further emphasis on rotting system reform.
This is Chinese administration thought history an epoch-making progress ,it marks the Chinese advanced intellectuals from the system itself society. Huang Zongxi administrative thoughts which is rooted in the traditional administrative ideas in the fertile soil ,have their the breaking place ,especially his " ;Jun harm on " ;put forward, on the national taxation " ;accumulation not return to kill " ,and administrative supervision ;" ;public is not at school and so on point " ;To place him in the Chinese Enlightenment thinkers position.
After three hundred years of democratic reform people Liang Qichao had claimed by the Ming Yi to interview thought influence ," ;thirty years ago ( Liang Shucheng in 1923 ,when mm author according to ) our student, as the stimulation of youth were most force stimulants ,www.nikeairfoamposite1.com ",my own political movement ,can be said to be affected by this book on the first and the most deep " ;,he praised :" ;Lizhou has a strange book ,called Ming Yi to interview .
From the youth today look to like ,though unexciting, but three hundred years ago, mm Lu SaO (i.e. Rousseau mm note ) about people born of decades before this comment ,not one of human culture noble product " ;,and praised Huang Zongxi " ;indeed contain democratic spirit of MM although very naive mm for three thousand years of autocratic political thought is very bold against " ;( see China Liang Qichao nearly three hundred years of academic history .
) Huang Zongxi is the spirit of democracy on the later Wu Xu reform movement and Xin Hai Revolution played a great ideological enlightenment ,Liang Qiqi and Sun Zhongshan both had secretly printed Ming Yi to interview ,and widely circulated .
( two) Huang Zongxi mm Chinese traditional line Politics thought epitomizes Huang Zongxi ( 1610-1695)as the Ming and Qing Dynasties famous thinkers ,historians ,was later referred to as the modern democratic thought of the enlightenment ,the patriot .
Taichong ,number Nanlei ,and number Lizhou ,Zhejiang Yuyao. Representative of Ming Yi to interview ,Nanlei ,anthology of song and Yuan Dynasties case study ,Jeremy Scott Adidas Wings,Ming Confucianism case and so on .
Politically ,he lashed out at the autocratic monarchy .Academic ,opposed to talk ,advocate pragmatism .Chinese traditional administrative ideas is a lot of Huang Zongxi administration thought rich source ,his father was the Ming Dynasty, the imperial ,Shandong served as the road to supervise the censor ,L.
the " " ;East ;school .His rough life, much calamity ,through the country and home to change, from the Ming Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty people happy ," ;half foreshore ten dead ,two fire during year " ;living on his great stimulus to his thought ,a greater impact ,and his great knowledge but also because rough and strive for further improvement .
During the reign of Kangxi ,who recommended Huang Zongxi to Kangxi describing him " ;Huang Zongxi Zhejiang ,learning, life eighty ,especially had ." ;but Huang Zongxi several times by called ,are not Shi Qing .
At the age of 53, Huang Zongxi wrote The famous Ming Yi to interview ,the politics and history monographs summarizing his administration thought .A total of 21, divided into Yuanjun ,,Yuanchen original law ,the phase ,school ,take person ,people get down on ,capital ,town ,Tian ,a field for two ,three ,tin soldier system a ,soldier ,two ,three soldiers making money plan a ,financial accounting ,two three .
,the ,official ,on the Amami Amami under Huan .This book text is very characteristic, is the Huang Zongxi administration thought integrated book ,condensed Huang Zongxi of the Chinese feudal society for nearly half a century of research ,he sums up the essence of State Administration ,through the history reflection on feudal society ,a sharp criticism ,and by virtue of the summer ,business ,Wednesday generation administrative ideal ,to ancient restructuring.
Ming Yi to interview than Rousseau social contract 100 years earlier,some people call it " " ;Universal Declaration of human rights ;Huang Zongxi contemporary thinkers Gu Yanwu said :" ;read this book ,can know the past history of all imperial system Drawbacks of .
" ;Ming Yi to interview against the monarchy ,advocate for civil rights ,at the end of Qing Dynasty, the reform movement of 1898 greatly influencedLiang Qichao in Qing academic studies in an article said: " ;Liang Qichao ,Tan Si peers advocating civil rights and Republic said ,the Book Festival copy ,print the secret ,spread ,in the late Qing Dynasty thought change ,extremely powerful and .
" ;and known as " ;human culture of noble products " ( ;Liang Qichao :nearly three hundred years of Chinese academic history .) Huang Zongxi has experienced the rise and fall of a nation ,system change ,its environment and society ,and political change in status, so that to his country the administration has its own unique views ,he profoundly reflect the thousands of years of feudal society in essence ,which he made with Chinese traditional administrative thought core concept is not the same voice, his " ;you said ," ;" damage ;Jun trolling wood " ;" ;said ,it is not in the public school " ;" ;people advocate ,granted to " tin ;formulation ,have shown the centralized system of opposition ,reflects the traditional people-based thought glory ,with democratic enlightenment color .
The democracy thought is budding planting in the later Chinese history of numerous aspiring to Chinese reform in English The male head. Many years later ,when we had walked into the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics today ,Premier Wen Jiabao in face of the rural tax and fee reform dilemma ,to the people of the whole country have a guarantee of confidence :" ;Communist Party of people will be able to break through the l Huang Zongxi r" ;.
So ,what is " ;Huang Zongxi " ,this law ;law proposed what is the historical background ,produce what kind of effect ;Huang Zongxi opinions on paper ,about the central division of power ,on the administrative supervision of the proof, in the following article will briefly discuss, because knowledge is limited, some inappropriate place needs further research and discussion purposes only .
Text extracted from Huang Zongxi administration thought in some worth our vigilance and miss the place ,draw lessons from the traditional administrative ideas of the essence, to improve the modern administrative management related aspects.
A ,Huang Zongxi administration thought of Taxation view mm " ;Huang Zongxi ( a ) " ;" ;Huang Zongxi " ;the historical background to discuss what is " ;Huang Zongxi " ,I ;no theory .
First we need to review a Under the feudal society land policy ,agriculture in ancient China was the most important production department ,in order to give priority to a unit of production in agriculture and a cottage industry of smallholder economy, feudal mode of production of the main base.
The late Ming and early Qing decades of war ,so that all parts of the country there are a large number of barren land .Emperor Kangxi ordered the Manchu nobility enclosure afterwards ,encourage a farmer to reclaim wasteland ," ;permanent associate for the industry .
At the same time to implement " ;" ;renamed field " ;,the Ming Dynasty Prince scattered around land to the original principal tenant farmers ," ;improving people name " ;,make farming to the number increased greatly.
The rectification of taxes and corvee, Kangxi Dahir " ;breeding population never add Fu " ;Yong Zheng " ,implementation farmland ;" ;since late Ming Dynasty ,the tortured smallholder economic recovery and development played a positive role .
But because of official corruption ,the burden of the farmer is very heavy. The Qing Dynasty in order to curb the illegal exploitation of the officers of the farmer ,execute paid officials on the silver honesty system " ;" ;but under the feudal system ,improving salary does not eliminate official corruption.
Many officials in a " ;" the silver honesty ;After the farmer ,still on the " ;transverse sent excessive syndrome " ;,fill one .Face this kind of situation ,Huang Zongxi thundered :" ;alas !I see the world of Fu daily ,then the people trapped in the .
" day ;at that time the farmer land ,and the land was the Royal ,the eunuch ,and local although occupied ,Adidas Jeremy Scott Teddy Bear,taxes or service special ,take the Jiangnan area ," ;a trapped in the ode, then trapped in the battle ,cap has skin and bone deposits shall be " ;( a little Fu ) Huang Zongxi to reduce farmer burden ,advocate reducing taxes.
In order to enable the people to live ,he also proposed the " world " ;public ;system. In Huang Zongxi ,the reform of land system ,the ideal is to restore the Ida system. So he advocated " ;neat are " ;,that land should be recovered for all countries, and then evenly distributed to farmers .
He also advocated the " ;grant of land to the people ,to what one is .Not grant field ,in twenty-one .In order to achieve social " ;Grant Thornton " ;,reduce the country burden ,improve people life ,it is a national economic measures ,and is a social welfare measures.
The well-field system in ancient China was the rural commune economic form ,by the state in accordance with the population of grant of land The award ,Noda " to " ;wells ;word evenly divided ,make land cultivated ,harvest ,the fields will be one of a field crop as taxes over ,actually is " ;the tithing .
" ;in Huang Zongxi Ming Yi to interview - land system .Said :" ;scholar said: Ida is not complex ,benevolence ,all people was spacious spacious .Who knows the Wei ,Jin ,Tang Han Zhimin and trapped ,Song Zhimin is trapped in the Wei ,Jin ?The world and people, rather only in Ida is no longer on the money given today !For the South; southern Fu to Qian and heavy ,song never change ;to a Shicheng and heavy ,have also never change.
" ;Jinyu tax ,shall be the accumulation of prior to system giving land to the people, to what one is not awarded ;Tian ,twenty-one as its accounts .Think to maintain an army of Fu, country with no deficiencies ,and what to expose tax !He also pointed out that the tax effect, in order to maintain an army ,state taxes are used up ,why cruel tax ?" ;but the king and the world, which will allow earth to ,out of hundred Valley Fu 100 Valley,a person having to Fu Sangma ,sundries are assigned the Andean people out ,not to sleepy time I !" ;" ;this measure the world land ,its value in the field of law, two There were 240 step fora mu, or as four hundred and eighty steps a mu, or as seven hundred and twenty steps a mu, then action in three hundred and sixty steps ,six hundred steps for mu ,five quarters of the .
" ;" ;so to this day and tax City ,silver is one-way ,thought the world big harm . Covered with silver note to wrap ,silver Lichu ,note to Shu ,the element of grain tax ,discount bills not broken silver .
This note can neither ,money is only in use, in tribute ,make 100 worksand in a way ,then silver exhaustive .Yuan and vertical lifting division ,buy gold ,gold and silver field opened ,each people mountain chain ,while gold silver for the folk who still .
This mine closed ,a mining ,and the Gongnu master ,to large ,and folk with ,then silver exhaustive ." ;the amount of revenue is a number after all ,Huang Zongxi has his own the calculation method of the land ,what ,with what to tax ,to make both ends meet ,not to be exploited to farmer no rest.
He said ,the land should be according to certain quantity measuring ,divided into levels, different level land tax is different. He also criticized silver generation tax method ,state tax unification with the silver ,to the people in trouble ,people will be two aspects of the press ,to promote the use of money instead of silver Two .
The about land reform ideas ,can be said that he is in the land system of democratic thought. He had visions of the future is " " ;to enrich the people ;world. He thought ,if his mind to do ,it can cancel the feudal land tenure, give a peasant with land ,make it become the free man.
Huang Zongxi raised by these claims ,is on the history of the times of reform of tax and fee issued after your feeling .Every time after duty expends reform ,farmer burden in the fall after a period of time will rise to a higher level before reform ,to the objective of the reform on the back.
Especially as the more famous the Qin Dynasty " ;what tax " ," ;Ming Dynasty ;a whip " ;,the reform not to start and end with vigour and vitality ,soundless and stirless ,every time reform will miscellaneous syndrome into the tax ,but later shows new miscellaneous syndrome ,so move in circles ,folk Scot continuously exacerbation of Huang Zongxi in Ming Yi to interview .
this cropland made three made incisive analysis ,reveals the phenomenon of a history, the history of every make and tax reform ,will create a miscellaneous sent climax. Later generations this " ;accumulation not return to kill " phenomenon ;for & Huang Zongxi of quot ;" ;more specifically ,Huang Zongxi about the feudal system summarizes three harm ,including " ;people suffering ,violence tax long ,accumulate not return to kill ,not to tax the harm ,there is no such land .
." ;" ;what is the accumulation of not return to kill ?Three generation tribute ,help ,penetration ,stop tax land .The households ,tone ,Arita rental Fu, households fabric ,field outside the complex user .
." ;" " 2;Huang Zongxi ;to the Chinese tax reform has sounded the alarm bell ,how to reduce farmer burden ,normative country tax ,is the head of state are issues to consider ,in the spring and autumn when there is " ;tyranny is fiercer than tigers also " ;exposition ,Huang Zongxi profoundly exposed the feudal autocratic rulers to people under the disc cut ,only to regulate administrative management ,find taxes rising source ,control the retrofit tax means ,to overcome the " ;accumulation not return to kill " ;,give people benefits, make a country stable .
( two) the Communist Party must be able to walk out of Huang Zongxi " ;" ;trap Huang Zongxi in seventeenth Century summary of the " ;Huang Zongxi in " ;Society Marxism Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao finally get attention ,Adidas Jeremy Scott Leopard,in the time of about reducing farmer burden conference speech pointed out :" ;history of tax reform had not once during the Tang Dynasty .
Like l R ,Adidas Originals M Attitude Logo,two tax law of Ming Dynasty when l R ,a whip in the Qing Dynasty when the L farmland r etc. Every time after duty expends reform ,because at that time the limitation of social politics environment, farmer burden is in fall after a period of time will rise to a higher level before reform ,to the original objective of the reform on the back.
In the period of Ming and Qing thinker Huang Zongxi called l accumulation not return to kill R ,this is the history of the famous L Huang Zongxi r." ;" ;the Communists are thoroughly for the benefit of the people .
We will be able to put the town of body lean down ,will be able to put too much to support them to cut down, will be out of the L Huang Zongxi R quot law circle you ;maybe Huang Zongxi in the paper " ;people suffering violence tax " ;when, no thought at several years later ,someone will his problem out to do systematic research ,and true to solve farmer problem.
His administration thought beyond the obvious when the general of Ming loyalists because Juanhuai motherland and the study of the fall of the Ming The purpose of the Qing scholarship ,also extends beyond the traditional Confucianism on the ruler category.
His thought has broken through the traditional political structure, opened the first democratic ideas in modern China .His outstanding achievements are beyond time and space ,there is a historical reference ,Communists hold to with civilian for this, as the Prime Minister .
That sentence ,communists will be out of Huang Zongxi " ;" ;circle ,this is the new era of reform of the tax system of an ideal ,but we are the outstanding thinkers in seventeenth Century raised the incisive point of view ,looking as generations of Chinese society ,can avoid " ;Huang Zongxi " of the circle ,yet ;to be the people ,in the final analysis ,or administrative management department main task, and the final can be implemented with civilian for this ,must strengthen the national all levels of departments and the tax system for the correct formulation and effective implementation .
In the opinion of the author ,in China to overcome Huang Zongxi " ;" ;,administration from the following aspects : first ,the administrative transparency is important, let broad tax people understand the national tax policy ,especially broad farmer ,should know the amount of revenue , standard ,understand when free ,when paying taxes.
Not blinded people. So that on the one hand to the government management will bring convenience ,on the other hand, so that the people support the national tax policy. Second ,reduced the State Administration ,reduce government spending .
The tax with most of the public infrastructure ,will be some not essential institution revoked. Improving the quality of civil servants ,improve administrative efficiency ,the appropriate streamlining of staff ,make a bloated body light up ,from the source control of tax project ,promote the development of productivity .
Third ,strengthen the leading cadres at all levels of Ideological and political education ,forming a socialist with Chinese characteristics national administrative ethics . Truly to people for this, representing the fundamental interests of the people ,from people real interests ,put one the ground to serve the people.
Two ,Huang Zongxi administration thought of democratic concept of mm" ;the world as king as guest " ;referred to Chinese traditional administrative ideas, first of all is the monarch ,minister, and the relationship between the three ,as well as around between the three launch of a series of national administrative management activities.
In Chinese traditional administrative ideas ,has a very prominent advocates Is the people thought .But ,in the Chinese traditional administrative ideas ,respect your ideas ingrained .
Most outstanding politicians and thinkers have advocated administrative management to the monarch as the axis, to your life administration, this is the first principle of administrative management .
Politicians and thinkers have used this principle analysis of administrative problems ,to follow the principle of design of administrative system ,make the administrative scheme. Therefore ,the traditional people-based thought is in the recognition of the autocratic monarchy supreme authority under the premise ,put forward " ;num.
" for the " ;" ;.This contradiction is doomed it to achieve the administrative concept of basic crux .Along with feudal decline of decadent ,inevitable meeting makes some of them through the thoughts of people against the imperial authority dictatorial rule.
Huang Zongxi is one of the outstanding representatives ,He Jun ,Chen ,for people of the relationship between the three new balance ,to do detailed analysis in this paper. Huang Zongxi boldly breaks through the barriers of royalism ,his voice ,will thousands of years people take for granted the unequal relationship between the emperor made revisited ,near his proposed equality ideas.
His Ming Yi to interview the article A Yuanjun of come to the point ,point out :" ;at the beginning of the birth ,selfishness ,self-interest and the ." ;i.e. the world people have inalienable rights and interests.
But later monarch was " ;the right to think that the world or do for me " ;,3will be the worldas their private property ,with a strong family thought." ;the world is not selfish ,not selfish ,to my great private world of big company " ;4,under the guidance of this idea ,Adidas Bones we can really help you achieve all,so do the monarch who ,without a prior ," ;world of life has the world of children ,discrete ,Bo I one of the industry for their own 5"" ;" ,regardless of industry ;people live or die ;in which you later, " ;knock pare the world marrow ,discrete world of the children ,to serve me a man then " ;monarch in spite of such people .
Life ,will be the world as his own property ,Huang Zongxi was depicted most incisive ,penetrating to the monarch was depicted ." ;" ;acts fundamentally denied the legitimacy of Huang Zongxi made it clear that the world is not peaceful, people are suffering unceasingly, is a " ;" ;results :" ;This is to you ,the world as a guest ,where the world without and peace ,for you !" ;" ;the world ,and ,you just carry on " ;( Yuanjun ) ,is very clear the autocratic monarchy system refers to all evil .
Since Jun is the essence of so ,then what is the relationship between the monarch and officials ,the monarch for the people and is a role, Huang Zongxi said a ) for the people of the world mainly mm" ;King passengers " ;Huang Zongxi through the ancient dust to make the system interpretation ,pointing out the monarch to the world and remove all evil .
Specifically ,it is :" ;not to has a benefit for profit, but to the world by its profit ;not to his own against damage ,and to make the world release and ." ;" ;the world as king as guest ,where I had completed the world while the operator ,for the world is l .
" ;in other words ,people for the world hard busy is the ancient monarch duty and duty. He points out clearly ,then China formed by the king ,the world is a guest, the world man-made Jun political situation is inverted relationship ,he cited the examples ,to demonstrate " ;Jun ,the " ,is the ancient administrative thinking ;deviation .
Qualified monarch should be " ;this is the The hard work will do to the world people. Husband to tens of millions of times as industrious and is not clean ,will not favor the for the home world of the " ;.
On the minister ,Huang Zongxi points out ,is not for the king " ;and also " ;,so his duty not to see the monarch of the cue ,and even kill them to you are wrong ,his duties but " ;for the world is " ;" ;for all peoples also " ;,with all the nations about music as their responsibility.
Therefore ,even if the " ;the monarch with sound strong I ,not dare from " ;;even " ;conduct in the in " ;. For the monarch when the behavior ,also not dare " ;Xu also " ;for the world .
Those who cannot ,only to kill everything you people ,can only be " ;" ," eunuch wives ;;private intimate person .In Huang Zongxi ," ;his conduct is the basis for the same act ,is to the world and remove all evil .
From the national management perspective, Huang Zongxi thinks his combination of the two is out of state large general administrative management needs of the mission ,and his job is the same ,all is for people ,serving the people .
Existence is not to please you ,not your " ;and " ;to alert you .His relationship in a malpractice :" ;for his contempt for people who ,fire and water ,which can promote the auxiliary ruler ,from the king died ,in his tract solid not back .
" ;Huang Zongxi concluded :" ;for the world of big bad ,you just carry on .If without you ,every man selfish ,one each from ." ;and on the basis of this ,Huang Zongxi sent the three generation of the banner, called " ;ancient person to the world ,the king passengers ,where I had completed the world while the operator ,for the world is " ;.
" ;cover the world revolution ,not a surname in the fall in sorrow and joy ,people " ;.This raises the king and people in the world who is main problem ,and a clear idea of the world people world ,you just work for the interests of the people public servant .
From Huang Zongxi we can see, his idea for the world thought and ancient people Bensi want to have certain difference. The feudal society " ;the " is based on the expectation ;feudal national long period of stability of political needs .
But the feudal economic base and superstructure are class exploitation as the premise ,the people-oriented thought and the system of exploitation has a natural contradiction ,this decided the people thought inevitable because " ;two laws deviated by " ;Various restrictions, and eventually become a cannot achieve political talk .
Two thousand years of Chinese feudal society of the political ecology ,is actually on the thought of the people trampled on .Huang Zongxi mercilessly ridicules and feudal autocratic system of criticism ,has touched the traditional thought of people as the key, revealed the modern enlightenment .
Liang Qichao said ,Ming Yi to interview of his generation youth produced profound effect, it is very obvious democratic enlightenment thought .( two) mm" total decentralization ;trolling wood also " ;Ming Taizu Zhu Yuanzhang abrogated the prime minister system in ancient China is a great reform in the administrative system ,it makes the autocratic to anodize ,become the basic reason of the corruption in the Ming Dynasty political anomaly .
Huang Zongxi has the feeling that cuts skin .He review in Ming Dynasty political gains ,will ,as the first phase of Ming Dynasty politics disadvantages. He said :" ;Ming without good governance ,from the emperor ,the prime minister was also " .
The Ming Dynasty ;political darkness corruption is one of the most important symbols of eunuch politics, while the eunuch politics is rooted in the system of prime minister was abolished. The reason why Huang Zongxi on the prime minister system put forward their own doubts ,there has been a long history of Ming Dynasty Prime Minister system comparison .
Twists and turns in the Ming Dynasty ,the beginning of the establishment of the system of the Yuan Dynasty ,which is ,to the Secretariat for the central institution ,located around the prime minister ,manager of governmental affairs ,about Cheng ,参知政事,officer Hongwu six years ,Hu Weiyong was appointed as prime minister by Prime Minister missing left ,right ,has become the de facto " ;single phase & quot the prime minister ;causing a deterrent to centralize power on major issues ,to the power of the emperor ,Hongwu thirteen years ,Zhu Yuanzhang rebellion charges kill Hu Weiyong and a large number of Pro Hu officials ,and abolished the system of prime minister ,and announced that the " ;ministers dare played please set ,civil and military officials instant impeach played ,at " ;6phase,in the central government ,the Department of government ,school ,temple, independent ,responsible directly to the emperor ,the emperor actually mastered is right.
Because of heavy national government ,Emperor and imperial power and phase right palm ,unavoidably, all by herself, it is bound to influence the government decision-making and execution efficiency, and the emperor for a variety of trivial affairs pesters a body, it is suffer unspeakably .
Phase two years later ,and modelled on the song set a house ,Yi Wu ,Wen Huadian ,Wenyuan Pavilion ,East Pavilion the bachelor ,assist the marking memorialize ,handle affairs .The university is the cabinet system originated .
Huang Zongxi believed ,because of The world is too large ,a person can control ,so " ;divided by group 7",namely through the division of responsibility ,common rule the world .
" ;husband to govern the world and trolling woodenly . The former sing sing a evil ,the latter ,the monarch and his subjects ,total drag wood also " ;he will his parables .As for trolling wood man that his division ,except a slightly different ,there is no much difference between the emperor ,the nature of things .